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1.9: Jurassic Park- World of Reptiles - Biology

1.9: Jurassic Park- World of Reptiles - Biology


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The climate on Earth in this epoch (Jurassic and Early Cretaceous) approached the optimum, the split of the continental plates led to its humidification. The sea strongly prevailed over the land, even high continental platforms such as the Russian and North African, were flooded.

The abundance of phytoplankton and zooplankton caused the thrive of marine fauna, including sponges, corals, bivalve mollusks (who took an active part in the construction of bioherms), echinoderms, etc. Ichthyosaurs and plesiosaurs were the most abundant marine predators.

Interestingly that in fossil deposits, pregnant females of ichthyosaurs are often found. Therefore, the ichthyosaurs were not only viviparous but also gave birth in conditions that “promoted” fossilization. The reason is they likely could not give birth as modern cetaceans: a tail up, this was not allowed with their vertical (like in fish, but not like in cetaceans) caudal fin. Then it seems that they were forced to give birth in shallow water, probably forming large groups (like modern seals).

On land, there were forests similar to the recent temperate taiga, composed mainly of representatives of the ginkgo class. Many of them were technically also angiosperms as their seeds were well protected by additional covers. These forests were mostly inhabited by insects, and primitive mammals hunted for them.

In open spaces, savanna forests were maintained (as modern grasslands exist only due to the constant pressure of ungulates) by giant herbivorous dinosaurs, replacing all the other groups with size of a modern cow and bigger. There also lived numerous predatory dinosaurs, both large and small bird-like insectivorous forms.

Flight of ancient birds was still very imperfect. The ancestors of birds needed feathers mainly for thermal insulation, and the flight occurred from the jumping movements required to catch flying insects. There is no much difference between archosauromorph reptiles and birds; in fact, flying is the only radical difference of birds.

The other group of flying archosaurs, pterosaurs, dominated the water and land borders. Ancestors of pterosaurs were fish-eating animals, and their flight arose as an adaptation to catching prey from the water.


Dinosaur Migration (C/N)

Migration is the ubiquitous phenomenon of long-distance movement of animals, usually on a seasonal basis. All major animal groups exhibit migration, including amphibians, birds, crustaceans, fish, insects, mammals, and reptiles. Migration may be triggered by changes in the local climate, such as birds flying to warmer, more southerly environments when the cold winter environments or wildebeest migrating for seasonal grazing lands. Other migratory animals move based on features of their biology, such as salmon leaving the freshwater rivers where they were born to mature in the ocean, and then migrating back to the same rivers to spawn.

The dinosaurs cloned by InGen similarly tried to migrate. This was seen most prominently in the velociraptors, which attempted to leave Isla Nublar in various ways.

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Jurassic World: Evolution (PC, Playstation 4, XBOX One)

Jurassic World: Evolution is a next generation console game that came out in the summer of 2018. It is a park-building simulation game similar to Jurassic Park: Operation Genesis that was released in 2003. The video and announcement came out on August 20th, 2017 meanwhile the game released on PC, XBox One, and Playstation 4 on June 12th, 2018.

About the Game

Take charge of operations on the legendary islands of the Muertes archipelago and bring the wonder, majesty and danger of dinosaurs to life. Build for Science, Entertainment or Security interests in an uncertain world where life always finds a way.

Bio-engineer dinosaurs that think, feel and react intelligently to the world around them. Play with life itself to give your dinosaurs unique behaviors, traits and appearances, then contain and profit from them to fund your global search for lost dinosaur DNA.

Control the big picture with deep management tools or go hands-on to confront challenges on the ground or in the air. Expand your islands and choose your own journey in an all-new narrative featuring iconic characters from across the franchise and decades of Jurassic lore at your fingertips.

Developer: Frontier Developments
Publisher: Frontier Developments
Released: June 12, 2018
Genre: Action, Simulation
Platform: PC, XBox One, Playstation 4
Control Elements: Keyboard, Mouse, Controller
Player(s): 1
ESRB Rating: Teen, for Blood and Gore, and Realistic Blood.

System Specifications
    • OS: Windows 7 (SP1+)/8.1/10 64bit
    • Processor: Intel i5-2300/AMD FX-4300
    • Memory: 8 GB RAM
    • Graphics: nVidia GTX 560 (2GB)/AMD Radeon 7850 (2GB)
    • DirectX: Version 11
    • Storage: 8 GB available space
    • Additional Notes: Minimum specifications may change during development

    RECOMMENDED:

      • OS: Windows 7 (SP1+)/8.1/10 64bit
      • Processor: Intel i7-4770/AMD FX-8350
      • Memory: 12 GB RAM
      • Graphics: nVidia GTX 980 (4GB)/AMD R9 380 (4GB)
      • DirectX: Version 11
      • Storage: 8 GB available space
      • Additional Notes: Recommended specifications may change during development
      Expansions
      Fallen Kingdom Free Update

      This update introduces three new dig sites, a cast of new dinosaurs which you can bring to your island, new InGen database entries and a number of fixes and improvements to the base game.

      Guests will be pouring onto your island to see two brand new herbivores, the feisty Stygimoloch, and the horn-adorned Sinoceratops. Each will have their own comfort requirements, so get those enclosures ready!

      And, if you feel like you’re an expert in crisis management, you’ll also see the arrival of three new carnivores, the terrific and terrifying Baryonyx, Carnotaurus and Allosaurus. Don’t put them too close to your guests though. They bite, chew and swallow whole.

      Alongside these toothy predators stands the star of the show: the horrifying and one-of-a-kind, Indoraptor! Haven’t yet had the pleasure to come face to face with this monstrosity? Get yourself to a screening of Jurassic World: Fallen Kingdom (to prepare yourself) or… simply introduce one into your park!

      Deluxe Dinosaur Pack

      This pack of additional dinosaurs is for owners of the base game who would like to upgrade to the Deluxe Edition of Jurassic World Evolution. Includes the following Dinosaurs:
      · Styracosaurus
      · Crichtonsaurus
      · Majungasaurus
      · Archaeornithomimus
      · Suchomimus

      Cretaceous Dinosaur Pack

      Expand your dinosaur collection in Jurassic World Evolution with a selection of impressive creatures from the Cretaceous period. Jurassic World Evolution: Cretaceous Dinosaur Pack introduces 3 remarkable specimens, each with a distinct set of behaviors and needs.

      • The Iguanodon is an herbivore that walks on all fours but can also stand on its hind limbs in aim to discourage predators with its powerful thumb spikes.

      • The threatening, carnivorous Carcharodontosaurus has sharp and jagged teeth.

      • The Dreadnoughtus is known for being one of the largest land animals that ever lived, his name rightfully means “fears nothing”.

      Secrets of Dr. Wu

      Face your toughest challenge yet! Hidden within Las Cinco Muertes is an intriguing new storyline featuring campaign missions from Dr. Henry Wu, who remains dedicated to his research with hybrid dinosaurs.

      As the story unfolds, you will learn that Dr. Wu has access to previously unseen locations, including his hidden hybrid development facility, kept secret even from the Hammond Foundation. These facilities will be based on two new locations on Isla Muerta and Isla Tacano.

      Work alongside the Divisions, while secretly answering to Dr. Wu. Earn his trust to gain access to new dig sites and bring to life five new dinosaurs, three of them being Dr. Wu’s hybrids. These exciting new discoveries will bring chaos caused by conflicts of interest as well as the dinosaurs themselves.

      Unlock powerful new tools for genetic manipulation and gain more control over your dinosaurs’ needs and behaviors than ever before. With careful conditioning you’ll alter their habitat, social, and population requirements, allowing even the most solitary and predatory of dinosaurs to cohabitate more peacefully with their own kind.
      Completing your missions and furthering Dr. Wu’s agenda will advance your research to unlock the Indominus Rex camouflage gene. The Indominus Rex can blend into its surroundings and make a surprise attack, so don’t let this one out of your sight!

      Carnivore Dinosaur Pack

      Unleash three new carnivorous dinosaurs into your park and witness the chaos they create. These menacing predators will challenge any park manager. Don’t underestimate them, the success of your park is at stake.

      • Herrerasaurus this carnivorous dinosaur is from the Triassic period. Herrerasaurus has a long narrow skull with lots of serrated teeth for tearing into the flesh of its prey and has a special joint in its lower jaw to hold down its prey with a vice-like grip.

      • Acrocanthosaurus features large spines running along it’s back giving it a name that translates to “high-spined lizard”. This large muscular theropod is a force to be reckoned with.

      • Proceratosaurus maybe a small two-legged dinosaur from the middle Jurassic period with a distinctive nasal crest, but it is also an ancient relative of the mighty Tyrannosaurus Rex!

      Claire’s Sanctuary

      Time is running out! The once dormant Mt. Sibo is expected to erupt at any time and threatens to send the dinosaurs of Isla Nublar back to extinction. Leap into action with former Jurassic World Operations Manager, Claire Dearing, and work together on this rescue mission to save these magnificent creatures.

      While the pressure is on to evacuate the dinosaurs, a mysterious illness is afflicting them and preventing their transport to safety. Determine the cause of the disease, develop and administer a cure, and send the dinosaurs to the safety of a new home. Following Claire’s ideals on dinosaur well-being, create a model ecological habitat on the paradise island of Sanctuary and balance dinosaur needs with the realities of running a commercial park.

      Alongside the new campaign, Jurassic World Evolution: Claire’s Sanctuary introduces all new structures, features, and three new dinosaurs – the Albertosaurus, Euoplocephalus, and Ouranosaurus – bringing new challenges to your islands.

      New paleobotany features and the new Greenhouse facility let you research and develop extinct plant species for your dinosaurs’ enclosures, and a new off-road ‘Jurassic Tour’ truck ride for park visitors can be dispatched from its own new building.

      Herbivore Dinosaur Pack

      Increase the diversity of your park with the addition of three new distinct herbivores. The Jurassic World Evolution: Herbivore Dinosaur Pack adds three unique sociable plant eaters that are a great addition to any vibrant park.

      • Homalocephale: With a name that means ‘even head’, Homalocephale sports a flat, thickened, wedge-shaped skull used as a tool for head-butting.

      • Dryosaurus: Preferring forested habitats, Dryosaurus rely on their speed and dexterity. They use their stiff tail while running as a counterbalance.

      • Nigersaurus: One of the smallest Sauropods, they measure around 9 meters long. Despite their long neck, Nigersaurs are grazers, feeding from plants close to the ground.

      Raptor Squad Skin Collection

      The Raptor Squad Skin Collection gives you access to research four distinct skin variants that allow you to incubate Velociraptors based on the popular Raptor Squad from Jurassic World: Blue, Delta, Echo, Charlie

      Return to Jurassic Park

      Following the events of the iconic 1993 film, you are invited to return to the island where it all started.

      Reclaim the park from the dinosaurs, rebuild beloved locations, and overcome brand new challenges guided by Dr. Alan Grant, Dr. Ellie Sattler, and Dr. Ian Malcolm in an original narrative voiced by the film cast.

      The pack features Jurassic Park-inspired attractions such as the Main Gates and Jurassic Park Tour, two new dinosaurs (the Compsognathus and Pteranodon), legacy skin variants, and much more.

      In addition, you can also replay all existing Jurassic World Evolution challenges and sandbox levels with a 1993-inspired overlay and inventory!

      Reception

      Reception of the game was mixed at first due to the fact that many felt that Frontier delivered an incomplete game, but most reviews have ended up positive as the game continually receives support via free updates and expansions. Unfortunately many people feel the game is still lacking in terms of decorations, flying reptiles, and marine reptiles as well as a small build space on each island. As such reviews lately have moved to being mixed once again while the game itself is considered to have received mostly positive praise over the continued updates and expansion. You can see reviews regarding the reception of this game here.


      Jurassic World Evolution Update – Return to Jurassic Park Coming December 10th, 2019!

      Jurassic World: Evolution continues to receive additional support from their developer, Frontier, with a long-awaited and much desired Jurassic Park update! See the video below along with information about it below.

      Jurassic World Evolution: Return to Jurassic Park allows you to revisit some of the iconic islands from the film in an all new, captivating storyline delivered by the original cast. Join Dr. Ian Malcolm, Dr. Alan Grant and Dr. Ellie Sattler, as you return, reclaim and rebuild the beloved locations of Isla Nublar and Isla Sorna, and open the gates of Jurassic Park to the public for the first time in history.

      Complete with a whole range of new buildings like the Visitor Center and Aviary, as well as a plethora of classic dinosaur skins including the 93′ T. rex and Velociraptor, this exciting new expansion is sure to bring back fond memories for any Jurassic Park Fan especially with two new highly anticipated dinosaurs coming as well:

      Compsognathus
      These dinosaurs lived in the Late Jurassic in what is now Europe. Weighing between 0.83 and 3.5 kg, Compsognathus would have relied on its quick reactions and high speed and maneuverability in order to catch its prey, which – unlike other dinosaurs – is well known due to fossil evidence of small lizards found in the stomachs of both known specimens.

      Pteranodon
      A genus of late Cretaceous pterosaur, flying reptiles that – while not dinosaurs themselves – share the clade Avemetatarsalia with dinosaurs. The name is derived from Greek meaning “wing without tooth”. With wingspans over 7 meters, these reptiles would have been extremely light and delicate in order to be able to fly.

      Alongside this hugely exciting content pack is a brand new free update with some features that have been highly requested from the community! We’ll be sharing more information about both the free update and Jurassic World Evolution: Return to Jurassic Park every week until the launch. So keep an eye out on all of our social channels, and buckle up for an awesome few weeks!

      Jurassic World Evolution: Return to Jurassic Park is coming 10 December on Steam, Playstation 4 and Xbox One for £15.99/€19.99/$19.99 (prices may vary depending on platform and region, you will need to own the base game to play the new content).

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      Watch the video: Reptiles Facts For Everyone! EvolutionReproductionAdaptation and More (January 2023).