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Is my terminology for proteins correct?

Is my terminology for proteins correct?


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Statement: Protein X consists of 20 amino acids.

Question 1: Is it necessary to write "Functional" Protein X or is it already implied, that it is functional?

Question 2: Referring to question #1 - Does "Active," "Functional", "Native", "Mature," and "Stable" all serve as the same as synonym?

Question 3: How would I refer to the 16th, 17th, 18th, 19th amino acids?

Option 1: AA-16 through AA 19 Option 2: (Subscript) A16A17A18A19 Option 3: The 16th through 19th amino acids…


1) I don't think so. I would not assume functionality.

2) People may diverge a bit on the semantics, but here's what I would say (my background is more cell bio and structural bio than biochem or genetics).

  • Active - Has enzymatic or signalling activity (or some other functional capability). Often proteins have multiple activities, or different active sites, so activity should be with respect to a specific function.
  • Functional - I interpret this to mean has all of its native activities intact. (I don't take this to mean anything structurally). One could also use this as a synonym for active, especially for a specific functionality.
  • Native - I take this to mean the protein has not been altered from its form found in nature. This implies it is functional.
  • Mature - My natural feeling for this is that it means the protein is structurally mature, i.e. it has been folded properly, transported to the correct cellular compartment, post-translational modifications completed, etc… For a non-functional mutant protein, I would hesitate to call it mature though, even if it were not semantically incorrect.
  • Stable - I interpret this entirely structurally. i.e whether the protein has folded to an energetic minimum or their natural structural state (incl. proteins with disordered domains). People might say, though, that stable means it has a natural lifetime, i.e. the cellular environment or the enzymes present are not destroying it at an abnormal rate.

I'm not quite sure what (3) is asking; if you edit, maybe I can comment.


[High School: Biology] Need help someone to correct my text for this assignment on hormones and contraceptives

Hello, I was curious if anyone could give this high school assignment a read and tell me how I could improve my text. I don't need grammar recommendations, but more along these criteria set by my teacher:

• You explain the details, and use correct and relevant terminology throughout the text.

• You analyze and seek answers to complex questions regarding microorganisms and their significance for health and disease.

• You discuss in detail, with nuance, complex issues that concern this. In your discussion, you present well-founded and nuanced arguments and explain in detail, and nuanced, the consequences of several positions. You highlight relevant new issues that propels your discussion forward.

How do hormones work and why are they important? Integrate relevant examples into your explanation.

Hormones are chemical messengers that travel through the body and coordinate complex processes such as growth, metabolism, and fertility. Hormones can affect the function of the immune system and even change the behavior of humans. Before birth, hormones lead to the development of the brain and reproductive system. Hormones are the reason why two arms have the same length, the reason why you can turn food into fuel in the form of energy and ATP, and transition from child to adult through puberty.

It happens as if a signal is sent to the brain to secrete hormones into the blood through the glands that produce and store these hormones. In turn, these glands form the so-called endocrine system. Chemicals that interfere with the function of hormones are therefore called endocrine disruptors. Then we also have the testicles and ovaries, or "gonads", which are perhaps the most famous endocrine glands. In men, the testicles produce sperm and secrete the male sex hormone testosterone in women, the ovaries produce eggs and the female hormone estrogen. It is these hormones that determine secondary sex characteristics such as muscle mass and facial hair. They also help orchestrate sperm production, menstruation, and pregnancy. Other endocrine glands include the thyroid gland, the islands of the pancreas, and the adrenal glands. These are mainly involved in growth, metabolism, and "fight or flight" responses to stress.

While all cells are exposed to hormones circulating in the bloodstream, not all cells respond. Only the "target" cells of a hormone, which have receptors for that hormone, will respond to its signal. When the hormone binds to its receptor, it causes a biological response in the cell. Metaphorically, if a hormone is a radio signal, then the receptor is the antenna. Without the antenna, no signal is received and no music would leave the radio. The signaling stops when the circulating hormones are broken down and secreted by the body.

Then there are also endocrine disruptors that can affect the hormone signal pathway. Some are hormone-like: they bind the receptor and send a false signal, which has not come from the brain. Other endocrine disruptors block the effect that a natural hormone should have and prevent it from binding to the receptor and creating an effect. Endocrine disorders can also change the amount of hormone that is synthesized, how quickly it is broken down or how a target cell should react. All these mechanisms of action can create the same effect, like interfering with the development of an embryo or causing an altered function in an adult.

Then the regulation of blood sugar (glucose) with the peptide hormone insulin can be a good example of a negative feedback mechanism, as blood sugar rises, receptors in the body feel a change. The beta cells in the pancreas contain insulin, and they enter the bloodstream to regulate blood sugar levels as the vesicles inside the beta cells fuse with the cell membranes through exocytosis. When blood sugar levels reach homeostasis (stable and constant state, or equilibrium), the pancreas stops secreting insulin. The liver then takes up glucose and stores it as glycogen, while the body cells take up glucose. Blood glucose levels fall as a result. We can also reach homeostasis when glucose levels are already low in the blood, the alpha cells in the pancreas release glucagon, which has the opposite effect to insulin, where it is then passed on to the liver and stimulates the conversion of stored glycogen to glucose, by the liver breaking down glycogen and releasing glucose, which leads to an increase in glucose in the blood. Homeostasis occurs.

Analyze and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of eating contraceptives, so-called. birth control pills.

Birth control pills are a type of medicine with hormones that come in a package, and you take one pill out of it every day. The birth control pills themselves are safe, cheap, and effective, provided you take the pill in time. In addition to preventing pregnancy, the pills have many other health benefits as well. How they work is that they prevent sperm from fertilizing an egg. The hormones in birth control pills also stop ovulation, and this means that there is no egg for sperm to fertilize. This can have positive effects on a woman who is not mature enough to take care of one child, or a family for that matter, if we take into account factors outside of biology. What the contraceptive pill is also good for is that the hormones make the mucous membrane thicker in the cervix. A thicker cervical mucosa means a blockage of sperm so that it can not swim to an egg. Unfortunately, this is not enough to defend the cervix from infections that can come with intercourse with a man, which is why you should both wash after sex, and also the man should wear a condom. Even more effective in preventing pregnancy is if the man also carries a condom while the woman consumes her birth control pills. A contraceptive pill also has other benefits that reduce acne, regulate the menstrual cycle more easily and regularly, and reduce menstrual cramps. This is due to the hormones in birth control pills. Some disadvantages of this contraceptive pill are that the hormones in the contraceptive pill can change the level of desire for sex. You can also detect spots or bleeding between periods, get sore breasts, get nauseous or have headaches. These side effects usually go away after a few weeks, and not everyone happens to take birth control pills.


What are proteins made of?

Proteins are made up of many different amino acids linked together. There are twenty different of these amino acid building blocks commonly found in plants and animals. A typical protein is made up of 300 or more amino acids and the specific number and sequence of amino acids are unique to each protein. Rather like the alphabet, the amino acid 'letters' can be arranged in millions of different ways to create 'words' and an entire protein 'language'. Depending on the number and sequence of amino acids, the resulting protein will fold into a specific shape. This shape is very important as it will determine the protein&rsquos function (e.g. muscle or enzyme). Every species, including humans, has its own characteristic proteins.

Amino acids are classified as either essential or non-essential. As the name suggests, essential amino acids cannot be produced by the body and therefore must come from our diet. Whereas, non-essential amino acids can be produced by the body and therefore do not need to come from the diet.

Table 1. Essential vs non-essential amino acids.

Essential amino acids

Non-essential amino acids

*these are conditionally essential amino acids, which means they are only essential under certain conditions (e.g. for new-borns). 1


Steps Involved in Protein Synthesis Mechanism | Genetics | Biology

The mechanism of protein synthesis has been studied thoroughly in E.coli. The process of protein synthesis on 70S ribosomes is described in detail below. The summary of the various steps in the mechanism of protein synthesis is shown in (Fig. 13).

Step 1 — Transcription:

One strand of DNA molecule functions as a template for the formation of mRNA. This mRNA contains the message for the protein to be synthesised. As soon as the mRNA is formed, it leaves the nucleus and reaches the cytoplasm where it attaches with the 30S subunit of ribosomes.

Step 2 — Attachment of mRNA to 30S Subunit of Ribosomes:

In prokaryotic cells, ribosomes are found in a dissociated and an inactive state. The mRNA binds to the 30S subunit. Specific sequences of 16 S rRNA of the small subunit of the ribosome binds to complementary sequence of mRNA. The first amino acid, which is usually N formyl methionine-tRNA (F-met tRNA) attaches to the mRNA to form the initiation complex.

This process is aided by GTP and three protein factors (IF1, IF2 and IF3 factors). The ribosome is uniquely designed to bring mRNA and tRNA together. The mRNA is threaded through the small subunit tunnel, while the large and subunit fit together to form tRNA binding pockets. After the formation of the initiation complex, the 50S subunit joins with the smaller subunit to form the 70S ribosome.

Step 3 — Transfer of Amino Acids to the Site of Protein Synthesis:

During this step, the amino acids are transported from the amino acid pool to the ribosomes. But the amino acids occur in the cytoplasm in an inactive state. Each amino acid is activated by a specific activating enzyme known as amino acyl synthetase and ATP.

The cell has at least 20 aminoacyl synthetase enzymes for the 20 amino acids. Each enzyme is specific and activates the correct amino acid. The enzyme is recognised by the enzyme site of the tRNA and the amino acid residue is transferred to the amino acid attachment site of the tRNA. The amino acid is linked to the 3-OH at the -CCA end of tRNA. As a result, the AMP and enzyme are released and the final product amino acyl-tRNA is formed. This moves towards the site of protein synthesis.

Step 4 — Initiation of Protein Synthesis:

The initiation involves the formation of the 70S complex and is aided by initiation factors.

The mRNA usually has AUG as its first codon. AUG codes for methionine. The methionine is formulated and plays an important role in initiating the process of protein synthesis. After the protein synthesis is completed, the formyl methionine is detached by the activity of the hydrolytic enzyme.

The function of the formyl methionine is to ensure that protein synthesis progresses in a specific direction. This is because, in formyl methionine, the NH2 is blocked by the formyl group leaving the -COOH end to react with the -NH2 group of the second amino acid.

The process of initiation differs significantly in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Three initiation factors are involved in prokaryotes – IF1, IF2 and IF3. Initiation in eukaryotes is more complex and requires 8 initiation factors. (Table 8). The first amino acid is methionine in eukaryotes.

Step 5 — Elongation of Polypeptide Chain:

During elongation, amino acids are linked to one another. The process of elongation requires elongation factors, EF-Tu, Ef-G and EF-Ts. A charged tRNA with the anticodon complementary to the codon of mRNA is brought to the A site of the ribosome. Peptide formation occurs between the amino acids in the P site and the A site in the presence of the enzyme, peptidyl transferase.

The peptidyl transferase reaction transfers the amino acid, from the P site onto the amino acyl-tRNA in the A site. The second tRNA now carries a dipeptide and the first tRNA is without an amino acid.

The next step of elongation is the movement of ribosomes by one codon along the mRNA. This is called translocation. The enzyme involved in this reaction is translocase. Translocation requires energy, which is provided by the hydrolysis of GTP. As translocation occurs, the tRNA with the dipeptide translocates to the P site and a new codon is available in the A site. The first tRNA now moves to the ‘E’ site. This tRNA is ‘kicked out’ by the action of transferase, which is also responsible for flipping the formyl-methionine to the tRNA present now at the P site.

In short, the whole process involves arrival of tRNA-amino acid complex, peptide bond formation and translocation. As the ribosomes moves over the mRNA in the 5′ → 3′ direction, all the codons are exposed at the A site one after the other and there is subsequent growth of the polypeptide chain.

Thus, the language of DNA is transcribed into the language of mRNA which is later translated into the language of polypeptides. The newly synthesised polypeptide is known as nascent polypeptide. The sequence of events in elongation occurs very rapidly and under optimal conditions a polypeptide chain of 40 amino acids can be produced in 20 seconds.

Step — 6 Termination and Release of Polypeptide Chain:

At the end of the mRNA chain there is a stop or terminator codon. There are three terminator codons – UAA, UGA and UAG.

When the information processing region encounters a terminator codon, it signals the stop of protein synthesis. A release factor joins the stop codon and this aids, the hydrolysis of the completed polypeptide chain from the P site. The ribosome separate from the mRNA chain and the ribosome dissociates into two subunits.

Step — 7 Modification of the Released Polypeptide:

The released polypeptide is in its primary form. It undergoes coiling and acquires a secondary and tertiary structure. It may combine with other polypeptides to assume a quaternary structure. Proteins known as chaperones help in the folding of the proteins to become functional.

Proteins synthesised on free ribosomes are released into the cytoplasm and function as structural and enzymatic proteins. Proteins formed on attached ribosomes, pass through the tunnel into the channels of ER and are exported as cell secretions by exocytosis after packaging in the Golgi apparatus.

The mRNA and ribosome are reusable. Sometimes many ribosomes read one mRNA molecule at one time. They form polysomes or polyribosomes producing many identical polypeptides. The polypeptides when released form proteins which may assume secondary, tertiary or quaternary structure. The sequence of DNA which codes for a polypeptide chain is called a cistron or gene.


Methods

Materials for Analogy Role-playing

Sequences of DNA and mRNA were printed on normal A4 paper and were then cut off and connected when used as described on the “DNA sheet” (Fig. 2). The sequence of DNA on the “DNA sheet” included a 5′-untranslated region, promoter region (TATA box), and a part of a collagen gene. Sense (coding) and anti-sense (non-coding) strands are shown, respectively, with a yellow and green background. A template of the start codon (TAC, which is complementary to start codon AUG, numbered +1 to +3) is shown with red characters. The promoter region, TATA box, is shown with a blue background and open characters. The start codon was previously entered on the “RNA sheet.” A cast member of RNA polymerase II (described below) entered an mRNA sequence into blanks after the start codon on “RNA sheet.” Wire clothes hangers for use by tRNA cast members can be purchased from a shop at a low price. It can then be bent to resemble the tRNA shape (Fig. 3). The anti-codon was written using an oil-based pen on white vinyl tape, which was stuck to the edge of tRNA hanger (Fig. 3). Additionally, Lego® blocks (Lego System A/S, Denmark) of three colors (yellow, red, and blue) were prepared for amino acids, and that of one color (black) for termination factor (Fig. 3).

Casting the Characters

In this role-play, we labeled participating students as “proteins or ribosome subunits” (Fig. 4). Two students were labeled as “nuclear matrix proteins” holding a “DNA sheet” in nucleus. Each student was labeled as a “transcription factor” for getting one clip on promoter region on DNA sheet, an “RNA polymerase II” for entering the mRNA sequence on an RNA sheet, and a “mRNA transporter” for transporting mRNA from nucleus to cytoplasm. Two students were labeled as “nuclear pore proteins” to let mRNA transport protein to get from nucleus to cytoplasm, and “ribosome subunits” for reading mRNA sequence and synthesize “peptide” using Lego® blocks as “amino acids.” Six students were labeled as “aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases” for connecting Lego® block to tRNA hanger and throwing it to a “ribosome.”

Classroom and Role-play Outline

Role-playing was conducted twice in a single “biology” classroom of about 90 min for first-year students of the Faculty of Science, Tokyo University of Science on October, 2012. Each participant (15 students) was studying in the mathematics, physics, or chemistry course at the Faculty of Science, so biology is not part of their normal course of study. All participants had learned previously about molecular mechanisms of central dogma. Before role-playing, the authors and two teaching assistants prepared rooms in a representation of a “cell” (Fig. 4). A “nuclear membrane” was represented by four desks (Fig. 4). All other desks were moved to the corner of the room. All participants were advised about the mechanism of central dogma before role-playing using a simple summary written on a sheet of A4 paper, and encouraged to fill out a Questionnaire Form asking 15 questions listed on Table 1. Casts of “nuclear matrix proteins,” “transcription factor,” “RNA polymerase II,” and “mRNA transport protein” were positioned in the “nucleus,” and cast members of “ribosome” and “aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases” were done in “cytoplasm.” Then “transcription” was started when the cue was given by one author (Kurabayashi) (Figs. 5A and 5B), followed by “mRNA transport” (Fig. 5C) and “translation” (Figs. 5D and 5E). The “translation” was finished when a stop codon was read by a “ribosome” and a black Lego® block representing the termination factor was attached to the Lego® block “peptide” (Fig. 5F). After role-playing, all participants were encouraged to fill out a Questionnaire Form asking 15 questions listed on Table 1, and soliciting freely worded opinions, e.g. “how do you feel or think about gene transcription and protein translation?”

Questions No. of Yes/No
Pre-“role-play” Post-“role-play”
1. Do you like Life Sciences? 7/8 8/7
2. Do you know where DNA is? 8/7 10/5
3. Do you know the relationships between DNA and genes? 10/5 8/7
4. Do you feel DNA is near yourself? 5/10 6/9
5. Do you know DNA is one substance? 11/4 11/4
6. Do you feel that DNA is connected to your life? 10/5 9/6
7. Do you know the full name of DNA? 8/7 8/7
8. Do you think DNA is easily observed? 1/14 1/14
9. Do you know all names of DNA bases? 5/10 5/10
10. Do you want to know more details about DNA? 10/5 10/5
11. Do you know how proteins are made from DNA? 7/8 11/4
12. Do you feel DNA is mysterious? 12/3 12/3
13. Do you know where genes are? 7/8 7/8
14. Do you think the mechanism of DNA function is complex? 10/5 12/3
15. Do you know all the names of RNA bases? 2/13 5/10


Using Claim, Evidence, Reasoning (CER)

The CER framework can be a strategy for students to improve their writing skills and understanding of informational texts. It was developed as a way to help students become better scientific thinkers and writers. Many of my labs, classroom activities and data analysis have a CER component. In fact, I keep a CER chart on my wall. You can download one for you wall at Activatelearning.com

As an example of how CER can support reading and understanding texts, I asked my students to read a recent article on how proteins in the cell membrane are associated with pain. It’s a short article, and students can read it quickly (about 10 minutes.) I ask students to then create a CER chart that identifies the claim being made, lists the evidence, and then provides reasoning that illustrates why that evidence is correct for that particular claim, hopefully referencing aspects of the cell membrane.

The article originally was published by Nature and Science News and includes a set of data showing how planarian responds to heated areas. Those lacking a membrane protein did not avoid areas where there was (presumably) uncomfortable heat.

The chart can be used for other projects or embedded into lab guides, or used as an exit ticket. Download a full page CER chart that can be used as a handout or simply keep the framework posted and students can write on their own pages.

CLAIM-EVIDENCE-REASONING (RUBRIC)

Accomplished (3) Proficient (2) Developing (1)
CLAIM Makes an accurate and complete claim, uses complete and grammatically correct sentences Makes an accurate, but incomplete claim, or grammatically incorrect Claim is not accurate, incomplete, or unintelligible
EVIDENCE Provides appropriate and sufficient evidence to support claim by referencing specific data, observations, or text evidence (for readings) Provides appropriate data but insufficient data, too general or lacking in details Provides evidence but it is insufficient, inaccurate, no details
REASONING Provides thorough reasoning that links evidence to the claim, references scientific principles that are relevant to claim Provides reasoning that links evidence to the claim, lacks scientific principles Does not provide reasoning, or reasoning does not link evidence.

Label Version (Print on Labels for exams)

Claim (accurate, complete, grammar) __3__2__1
Evidence (appropriate, sufficient, data) __3__2__1
Reasoning (links to claim and sci. principles) 3__2__1


Methods

The key idea of this method is to compare paralogous and orthologous proteins from the same family. As a rule, all paralogous and orthologous proteins have the same biochemical function. Paralogous proteins, however, usually have different specificity as they act on different targets, e.g. bind different ligand or different sites on the DNA. Orthologous proteins, in contrast, have the same specificity in different organisms, e.g. bind the same ligand and similar DNA sites in related genomes. Hence, orthologous proteins carry the same or similar specificity determining residues, whereas paralogous proteins carry different ones. Based on this idea, our analysis is looking for residues that are conserved among orthologs and different in paralogs. More generally, we are looking for residues that can discriminate between different paralogs, while grouping orthologs together. We call these residues specificity determining.

The analysis works as following: First, in a group of homologous proteins, paralogs from one organism are selected. Second, for each of the paralogs we find its orthologs in related organisms and build a multiple sequence alignment (MSA) using ClustalW [24]. Third, we compute the mutual information for each position of the MSA. The mutual information determines how well a residue in the MSA can discriminate between orthologous groups. The forth, and the most important step is to compute the statistical significance of the discrimination and to select residues that can discriminate significantly better than the others. These residues are the specificity determinants.

Selection of orthologs

A list of complete and almost complete bacterial genomes used in this study and a full list of orthologs is provided in Supplementary Information. Homologs of LacI and PurR of E. coli were identified using GenomeExplorer [25] and supplemented by proteins from SwissProt [26]. Then Phylogenetic trees were constructed using the neighbor-joining procedure implemented in ClustalW [24]. Only unambiguous groups of orthologs identified by (1) absence of duplications in corresponding sub-branches of the tree (in two cases duplications in one genome were allowed where the proteins were known to have the same ligand and DNA-binding specificity), (2) functional annotation when known, and (3) genomic positional analysis [11] were selected.

Mutual information

The goal is to identify residues that can discriminate between paralogous proteins (different specificity) and at the same time merge orthologs (same specificity) together. To find such residues we use the mutual information as a measure of association with the specificity. Mutual information is frequently used in computational biology for co-variational analysis in RNA and proteins [27, 28].

If x = 1. 20 is a residue type, y = 1. Y is the specificity index which is the same for all proteins of the same specificity group and is different for different groups, and Y is the total number of specificity groups, then the mutual information at position i of the MSA is:

where f i(x) is the frequency of residue type x in position i of the MSA, f(y) is the fraction of proteins belonging to the group y, and f i(x,y) is the frequency of residue type x in the group y at position i. Mutual information has several important properties: (1) it is nonnegative (2) it equals zero if and only if x and y are statistically independent and (3) a large value of I i indicates a strong association between x and y [29]. Unfortunately, a small sample size and a biased composition of each column in the MSA influences I i a lot. For example, positions with less conserved residues tend to have higher mutual information. Hence, we can not rely on the value of I i as an indicator of specificity association, instead we estimate the statistical significance of I i.

Statistical Significance

Since mutual information can be biased due to the small sample size or biased amino acid composition, we can not rely on the value of mutual information to identify the specificity determinants. Instead, we compute the statistical significance P(I) of the mutual information and use it together with I to predict the specificity determining residues. Calculation of statistical significance is the most important component of the method. We present two different approaches, which, however, produce very similar results.

A standard way of computing P(I) is by shuffling [30]. However, this method is unacceptable for the following reason. Naturally, proteins within each specificity group (orthologs) are much more similar to each other than proteins from different groups (paralogs). Hence, amino acids at every position are somewhat associated with the functional grouping, producing I higher than the mutual information obtained by shuffling (data not shown). Developing a statistical test we have to take into account the naturally higher similarity between orthologs in comparison to paralogs. In other words, we need a statistical test to identify positions that are stronger associated with the functional grouping, than the whole proteins on average.

To accomplish this task we developed two statistical models. The first model uses linear transformation to take into account a bias introduced by higher intra-group similarity of orthologs. The second model simulates accumulation of mutations in duplicated genes in order to reproduces a higher intra-group similarity. Details of both statistical models are given in Supplementary Information.

Briefly, in the first model we begin with computing the distribution of I sh by multiple shuffling of every position in the MSA. Then the distribution of I sh is transformed into the distribution of expected mutual information . Parameters α and β are set to have the same value for all positions i. The values of α and β are found by maximal likelihood estimator. This transformation compensates for position-independent bias due to higher intra-group similarity of orthologs. Distribution of I exp is then used to compute sought statistical significance P i(I).

The second model does not use shuffling. Instead, we simulate evolution of proteins in the family and generate a set of pseudo-random protein sequences. The proteins are generated such that (i) composition of each column in the MSA of the pseudo-random proteins is the same as in the real proteins and (ii) intra- and inter-group similarity resembles those of the real proteins. Next, we compute the distribution of mutual information I rnd for the MSA of pseudo-random proteins. This distribution is used to computer P i = P(I i). See Supplementary Information for details.


Glossary of Diabetes Terms

Acesulfame-k: An artificial sweetener used in place of sugar it contains no carbohydrates or sugar therefore, it has no effect on blood sugar levels. This sweetener is often used in conjunction with other artificial sweeteners in processed low-calorie foods. It is also used as a tabletop sweetener under the brand names Sunette, Sweet One, and Swiss Sweet.

Acetone: A chemical formed in the blood when the body breaks down fat instead of sugar for energy if acetone forms, it usually means the cells are starved. Commonly, the body's production of acetone is known as "ketosis." It occurs when there is an absolute or relative deficiency in insulin so sugars cannot get into cells for energy. The body then tries to use other energy sources like proteins from muscle and fat from fat cells. Acetone passes through the body into the urine.

Acidosis: Too much acid in the body, usually from the production of ketones like acetone, when cells are starved for a person with diabetes, the most common type of acidosis is called "ketoacidosis."

Acute: Abrupt onset that is usually severe happens for a limited period of time.

Adrenal glands: Two endocrine glands that sit on top of the kidneys and make and release stress hormones, such as epinephrine (adrenaline), which stimulates carbohydrate metabolism norepinephrine, which raises heart rate and blood pressure and corticosteroid hormones, which control how the body utilizes fat, protein, carbohydrates, and minerals, and helps reduce inflammation. They also produce sex hormones like testosterone and can produce DHEA and progesterone.

Adult-onset diabetes: A term for type 2 diabetes that is no longer used, because this type of diabetes is now commonly seen in children "non-insulin dependent diabetes" is also considered an incorrect phrase in describing type 2 diabetes, because patients with this type of diabetes may at some point require insulin.

Advantame: An FDA-approved sugar substitute similar to Aspartame it can be used as both a tabletop sweetener and as an ingredient in cooking. Advantame can also be used in baked goods, soft drinks and other non-alcoholic beverages, chewing gum, candies, frostings, frozen desserts, gelatins and puddings, jams and jellies, processed fruits and fruit juices, toppings and syrups.

Adverse effect: Harmful effect.

Aerobic exercise: Any rhythmic physical activity that uses large muscle groups and causes the heart and lungs to work harder than when your body is at rest. Also called cardio exercise, it’s been proven to lower blood sugar levels.

Albuminuria: When kidneys become damaged, they start to leak protein in the urine. Albumin is a small, abundant protein in the blood that passes through the kidney filter into the urine easier than other proteins. Albuminuria occurs in about 30%-45% of people who have had type 1 diabetes for at least 10 years. In people newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, the kidneys may already show signs of small amounts of protein spillage, called "microalbuminuria." This may be from the result of diabetes or from other diseases seen in conjunction with diabetes, like high blood pressure. Protein in the urine increases the risk of developing end-stage kidney disease. It also means that the person is at a particularly high risk for the development of cardiovascular disease.

Alpha cell: A type of cell in an area of the pancreas called the islets of Langerhans alpha cells make and release a hormone called "glucagon." Glucagon functions in direct opposition to insulin -- it increases the amount of glucose in the blood by releasing stored sugar from the liver.

Anomaly: Birth defects deviation from the norm or average.

Antibodies: Proteins that the body produces to protect itself from foreign substances, such as bacteria or viruses.

Antidiabetic agent: A substance that helps people with diabetes control the level of sugar in their blood (see insulin, oral diabetes medication).

Antigens: Substances that cause an immune response in the body, identifying substances or markers on cells the body produces antibodies to fight antigens, or harmful substances, and tries to eliminate them.

Artery: A blood vessel that carries blood from the heart to other parts of the body arteries are thicker than veins and have stronger, more elastic walls. Arteries sometimes develop plaque within their walls in a process known as "atherosclerosis." These plaques can become fragile and rupture, leading to complications associated with diabetes, such as heart attacks and strokes.

Artificial pancreas: A glucose sensor attached to an insulin delivery device both are connected together by what is known as a "closed loop system." In other words, it is a system that not only can determine the body glucose level, but also takes that information and releases the appropriate amounts of insulin for the particular sugar it just measured. The artificial pancreas can regulate the amount of insulin released, so low sugars would cause the device to decrease insulin delivery. Trials using an artificial pancreas are currently under way, and the hope is that this system will be commercially available within 5 years. Studies are also being conducted to develop a version of this system that can be implanted.

Artificial sweeteners: Also called non-nutritive sweeteners, these include low-calorie or non-caloric sweeteners or sugar substitutes. They add a sweet flavor with fewer calories than table sugar, corn syrup, or fruit juice concentrates. Examples are aspartame (NutraSweet and Equal), sucralose (Splenda), acesulfame potassium, neotame, and saccharin (Sweet'N Low).

Aspartame: An artificial sweetener used in place of sugar, because it has few calories sold as ''Equal" and "NutraSweet."

Asymptomatic: No symptoms no clear sign that disease is present.

Atherosclerosis: A disease of the arteries caused by deposits of cholesterol in the walls of arteries these plaques can build up and cause narrowing of the arteries or they can become fragile and break off, forming blood clots that cause heart attacks and stroke. The arteries that supply blood to the heart can become severely narrowed, decreasing the supply of oxygen-rich blood to the heart, especially during times of increased activity.

Autoantibody test: This blood test, called the zinc transporter 8 autoantibody (ZnT8Ab) test, is used along with other information and test results to determine if a person has type 1 diabetes and not another type of diabetes.

Autoimmune disease: A disorder of the body's immune system in which the immune system mistakenly attacks itself examples of these diseases include type 1 diabetes, hyperthyroidism caused by Graves' disease, and hypothyroidism caused by Hashimoto's disease.

Autonomic neuropathy: Nerve damage to the part of the nervous system that we cannot consciously control these nerves control our digestive system, blood vessels, urinary system, skin, and sex organs. Autonomic nerves are not under a person's control and function on their own.

Background retinopathy: This is the mildest form of eye disease caused by diabetes it can be associated with normal vision. With a longer duration of diabetes or with uncontrolled blood sugars, eye damage can progress to more serious forms.

Basal rate: The amount of insulin required to manage normal daily blood glucose fluctuations most people constantly produce insulin to manage the glucose fluctuations that occur during the day. In a person with diabetes, giving a constant low level amount of insulin via insulin pump mimics this normal phenomenon.

Beta cell: A type of cell in an area of the pancreas called the islets of Langerhans beta cells make and release insulin, which helps control the glucose level in the blood.

Biosynthetic insulin: Genetically engineered human insulin this insulin has a much lower risk of inducing an allergic reaction in people who use it, unlike cow (bovine) or pork (porcine) insulins. The manufacturers of synthetic insulin make it in a short-acting form, which works to cover mealtime increases in sugars they also produce longer-acting insulins, which cover sugars between meals and when fasting, such as during the night.

Blood glucose: See glucose.

Blood glucose monitoring or testing: A method of testing how much sugar is in your blood home blood-glucose monitoring involves pricking your finger with a lancing device, putting a drop of blood on a test strip and inserting the test strip into a blood-glucose-testing meter that displays your blood glucose level. Blood-sugar testing can also be done in the laboratory. Blood-glucose monitoring is recommended three or four times a day for people with insulin-dependent diabetes. Depending on the situation, glucose checks before meals, two hours after meals, at bedtime, in the middle of the night, and before and after exercise, may be recommended.

Blood pressure: The measurement of the pressure or force of blood against the blood vessels (arteries) blood pressure is written as two numbers. The first number or top number is called the systolic pressure and is the measure of pressure in the arteries when the heart beats and pushes more blood into the arteries. The second number, called the diastolic pressure, is the pressure in the arteries when the heart rests between beats. The ideal blood pressure for non-pregnant people with diabetes is 130/80 or less.

Blood sugar: Also called blood glucose, this is the sugar that's in your bloodstream. People with type 2 diabetes have too much blood sugar because insulin levels or actions aren’t working well.

Blood urea nitrogen (BUN): A product of metabolism that is excreted in the urine it is measured in the blood as an indirect measure of how well the kidney is functioning. Increased BUN levels in the blood may indicate early kidney damage, meaning the kidneys aren't effectively excreting BUN.

Body mass index (BMI): A calculation based on your height and weight to categorize you as underweight, at a healthy weight, overweight, or obese. BMI gives an idea of what your risks of health problems are based on your weight. You can calculate yours here.

Brittle diabetes: When a person's blood sugar level often shifts very quickly from high to low and from low to high.

Bunion: Bump or bulge on the first joint of the big toe caused by the swelling of a sac of fluid under the skin and abnormalities in the joint women are usually affected because of tight fitting or pointed shoes or high heels that put pressure on the toes, forcing the outward movement of the joint. People with flat feet or low arches are also prone to bunions. Shoes that fit well and are padded can prevent bunions from forming. Bunions may lead to other problems, such as serious infection from the big toe putting pressure on other toes.

Callus: A small area of skin, usually on the foot, that has become thick and hard from rubbing or pressure calluses may lead to other problems, such as serious infection. Shoes that fit well can prevent calluses from forming.

Calorie: Energy that comes from food some foods have more calories than others. Fats have more calories than proteins and carbohydrate. Most vegetables have few.

Carbohydrate: One of the three main classes of foods and a source of energy carbohydrates are mainly sugars and starches that the body breaks down into glucose (a simple sugar that the body can use to feed its cells).

Carbohydrate counting: A meal-planning technique that involves tracking the grams of carbs in food to make sure that you don't eat more than a certain amount at a given meal. You can count each serving of carbohydrates, since each serving of carbs is 15 grams. If you choose this strategy, your doctor or diabetes educator will tell you how many total carbs to aim for in each meal or the total daily amount.

Cardiologist: A doctor who takes care of people with heart disease a heart specialist.

Cardiovascular: Relating to the heart and blood vessels (arteries, veins, and capillaries).

Certified Diabetes Educator (CDE): A health care professional who is certified by the American Association of Diabetes Educators (AADE) to teach people with diabetes how to manage their condition.

Cholesterol: A waxy, odorless substance made by the liver that is an essential part of cell walls and nerves cholesterol plays an important role in body functions such as digestion and hormone production. In addition to being produced by the body, cholesterol comes from animal foods that we eat. Too much cholesterol in the blood causes an increase in particles called LDL (''bad'' cholesterol), which increases the buildup of plaque in the artery walls and leads to atherosclerosis.

Coma: An emergency in which a person is not conscious may occur in people with diabetes because their blood sugar is too high or too low.

Dawn phenomenon: A rise in blood sugar levels in the early morning hours.

Dehydration: Large loss of body water if a person with diabetes has a very high blood sugar level, it causes increased water loss through increased urination and therefore, extreme thirst.

Diabetes: See type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes.

Diabetes-friendly food: Any food that is healthy for someone with diabetes to have. Because there are no special foods that a person with diabetes must eat, pretty much any healthy food can qualify. Warning: Some packaged foods that aren't especially healthy may be labeled "diabetes-friendly," so always check nutrition labels.

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA): A severe, life-threatening condition that results from hyperglycemia (high blood sugar), dehydration, and acid buildup that needs emergency fluid and insulin treatment DKA happens when there is not enough insulin and cells become starved for sugars. An alternative source of energy called ketones becomes activated. The system creates a buildup of acids. Ketoacidosis can lead to coma and even death.Dietitian: An expert in nutrition who helps people plan the type and amount of foods to eat for special health needs a registered dietitian (RD) has special qualifications.

Dietitian: Also called a nutritionist, this is an expert who is trained in the science of nutrition and advises others about healthy eating. Some nutritionists are registered dietitians (RD or RDN) this credential means that someone has completed a higher level of training and passed a registration exam.

Emergency medical identification: Cards, bracelets, or necklaces with a written message, used by people with diabetes or other medical problems to alert others in case of a medical emergency, such as coma.

Endocrinologist: A doctor who treats people with hormone problems.

Exchange lists: A way of grouping foods together to help people on special diets stay on the diet each group lists food in a serving size. A person can exchange, trade, or substitute a food serving in one group for another food serving in the same group. The lists put foods into six groups: starch/bread, meat, vegetables, fruit, milk, and fats. Within a food group, one serving of each food item in that group has about the same amount of carbohydrate, protein, fat, and calories.

Fasting plasma glucose test (FPG): The preferred method of screening for diabetes the FPG measures a person's blood sugar level after fasting or not eating anything for at least 8 hours. Normal fasting blood glucose is less than 100 milligrams per deciliter or mg/dL. A fasting plasma glucose greater than 100 mg/dL and less than126 mg/dL implies that the person has an impaired fasting glucose level but may not have diabetes. A diagnosis of diabetes is made when the fasting blood glucose is greater than 126 mg/dL and when blood tests confirm abnormal results. These tests can be repeated on a subsequent day or by measuring glucose 2 hours after a meal. The results should show an elevated blood glucose of more than 200 mg/dL.

Fats: Substances that help the body use some vitamins and keep the skin healthy they are also the main way the body stores energy. In food, there are many types of fats -- saturated, unsaturated, polyunsaturated, monounsaturated, and trans fats. To maintain your blood cholesterol and triglyceride (lipid) levels as near the normal ranges as possible, the American Diabetes Association recommends limiting the amount of saturated fats and cholesterol in our diets. Saturated fats contribute to blood levels of LDL (''bad'') cholesterol. The amount of saturated fats should be limited to less than 10% of total caloric intake, and the amount of dietary cholesterol should be limited to 300 mg/day.

Fiber: A type of carbohydrate that the body can’t digest. It can’t be broken down into sugar. You'll find it in fruits, vegetables, beans, whole grains, and nuts. High-fiber foods tend to be bulky and require extra chewing, so they may boost your weight loss efforts by helping you feel fuller for longer. Fiber plays an important role in the digestive process, and getting enough may also help improve your blood sugar levels.

Food journaling (meal tracking): The process of writing down or otherwise recording what you eat. Research has shown that keeping track of your food intake can help you lose weight.

Fructose: A type of sugar found in many fruits and vegetables and in honey fructose is used to sweeten some diet foods, but this type of sweetener is typically not recommended for people with diabetes, because it could have a negative effect on blood sugar.

Gangrene: The death of body tissues, usually due to a lack of blood supply, especially in the legs and feet.

Gastroparesis: A form of nerve damage that affects the stomach and intestines with this condition, food is not digested properly and does not move through the stomach and intestinal tract normally. It can result in nausea and vomiting, because the transit time of food is slowed by nerve damage. This type of nerve damage can also cause a significant problem with low and erratic blood sugars.

Gestational diabetes: A high blood sugar level that starts or is first recognized during pregnancy hormone changes during pregnancy affect the action of insulin, resulting in high blood sugar levels. Usually, blood sugar levels return to normal after childbirth. However, women who have had gestational diabetes are at increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes later in life. Gestational diabetes can increase complications during labor and delivery and increase the rates of fetal complications related to the increased size of the baby.

Glaucoma: An eye disease associated with increased pressure within the eye glaucoma can damage the optic nerve and cause impaired vision and blindness.

Glucagon: A hormone that raises the level of glucose in the blood by releasing stored glucose from the liver glucagon is sometimes injected when a person has lost consciousness (passed out) from low blood sugar levels. The injected glucagon helps raise the level of glucose in the blood.

Glucose: A simple sugar found in the blood it is the body's main source of energy also known as "dextrose."

Glucose tablets: Chewable sugar that people with diabetes use to raise their blood sugar quickly when it drops dangerously low (hypoglycemia). These products come in a variety of flavors and forms such as gels, liquids, and powders. If you take a medication that makes you prone to this problem, your doctor may tell you to carry glucose tablets with you, especially during exercise.

Glucose tolerance test: A test to determine if a person has diabetes the test is done in a lab or doctor's office in the morning before the person has eaten. A period of at least 8 hours without any food is recommended prior to doing the test. First, a sample of blood is taken in the fasting state. Then the person drinks a liquid that has sugar in it. Two hours later, a second blood test is done. A fasting blood sugar equal to or greater than 126 mg/dl is considered diabetes. A fasting blood sugar between 100 mg/dl and 125 mg/dl is classified as impaired fasting glucose. If the two-hour test result shows a blood sugar equal to or greater than 200 mg/dl, the person is considered to have diabetes. A two-hour blood glucose between 140 mg/dl and 199 mg/dl is classified as impaired glucose tolerance.

Glycated hemoglobin test (HbA1c): This is an important blood test to determine how well you are managing your diabetes hemoglobin is a substance in red blood cells that carries oxygen to tissues. It can also attach to sugar in the blood, forming a substance called glycated hemoglobin or a Hemoglobin A1C. The test provides an average blood sugar measurement over a 6- to 12-week period and is used in conjunction with home glucose monitoring to make treatment adjustments. The ideal range for people with diabetes is generally less than 7%. This test can also be used to diagnose diabetes when the HbA1c level is equal to or greater than 6.5%.

High blood pressure: A condition when the blood flows through the blood vessels at a force greater than normal high blood pressure strains the heart, harms the arteries, and increases the risk of heart attack, stroke, and kidney problems also called "hypertension." The goal for blood pressure in people with diabetes is less than 130/80.

High blood sugar: See hyperglycemia.

Home blood glucose monitoring: A way in which a person can test how much sugar is in the blood also called "self-monitoring of blood glucose." Home glucose monitoring tests whole blood (plasma and blood cell components) thus, the results can be different from lab values, which test plasma values of glucose. Typically, the lab plasma values can be higher than the glucose checks done at home with a glucose monitor.

Hormone: A chemical released in one organ or part of the body that travels through the blood to another area, where it helps to control certain bodily functions for instance, insulin is a hormone made by the beta cells in the pancreas and when released, it triggers other cells to use glucose for energy.

Human insulin: Bio-engineered insulin very similar to insulin made by the body the DNA code for making human insulin is put into bacteria or yeast cells and the insulin made is purified and sold as human insulin.

Hyperglycemia: High blood sugar this condition is fairly common in people with diabetes. Many things can cause hyperglycemia. It occurs when the body does not have enough insulin or cannot use the insulin it does have.

Hypoglycemia: Low blood sugar the condition often occurs in people with diabetes. Most cases occur when there is too much insulin and not enough glucose in your body.

Impotence: Also called "erectile dysfunction" persistent inability of the penis to become erect or stay erect. Some men may become impotent after having diabetes for a long time, because nerves and blood vessels in the penis become damaged. It is estimated that 50% of men diagnosed with type 2 diabetes experiences impotence.

Injection site rotation: Changing the areas on the body where a person injects insulin by changing the area of injection, the injections will be easier, safer, and more comfortable. If the same injection site is used over and over again, hardened areas, lumps, or indentations can develop under the skin, which keep the insulin from being used properly. These lumps or indentations are called "lipodystrophies."

Injection sites: Places on the body where people can inject insulin most easily.

Insulin: A hormone produced by the pancreas that helps the body use sugar for energy the beta cells of the pancreas make insulin.

Insulin-dependent diabetes: Former term used for type 1 diabetes.

Insulin mixture: A mixture of insulin that contains short-, intermediate- or long-acting insulin you can buy premixed insulin to eliminate the need for mixing insulin from two bottles.

Insulin pump: A small, computerized device -- about the size of a small cell phone -- that is worn on a belt or put in a pocket insulin pumps have a small flexible tube with a fine needle on the end. The needle is inserted under the skin of the abdomen and taped in place. A carefully measured, steady flow of insulin is released into the body.

Insulin reaction: Another term for hypoglycemia in a person with diabetes this occurs when a person with diabetes has injected too much insulin, eaten too little food, or has exercised without eating extra food.

Insulin receptors: Areas on the outer part of a cell that allow insulin in the blood to join or bind with the cell when the cell and insulin bind together, the cell can take glucose from the blood and use it for energy.

Insulin resistance: When the effect of insulin on muscle, fat, and liver cells becomes less effective this effect occurs with both insulin produced in the body and with insulin injections. Therefore, higher levels of insulin are needed to lower the blood sugar.

Insulin resistance syndrome or metabolic syndrome: This syndrome is defined by a cluster of medical conditions that raise the risk of developing type 2 diabetes and heart disease. A diagnosis is important, because you can make health improvements that lessen the risk.

Insulin resistance syndrome or metabolic syndrome is diagnosed when a person has 3 or more of the following:

  • Blood pressure equal to or higher than 130/85 mmHg
  • Fasting blood sugar (glucose) equal to or higher than 100 mg/dL
  • Large waist circumference (a waistline of 40 inches or more for men 35 inches or more for a woman)
  • Low HDL cholesterol (under 40mg/dL for men un der 50 mg/dL for women)
  • Triglycerides equal to or higher than 150 mg/dL

Insulin shock: A severe condition that occurs when the level of blood sugar drops quickly.

Intermediate-acting Insulin: Covers insulin needs for about half the day or overnight this type of insulin is often combined with rapid- or short-acting insulin. Includes NPH and Lente.

Intermittent claudication: Pain in the muscles of the legs that occurs off and on, usually while walking or exercising the pain results from atherosclerosis of the blood vessels feeding the muscles of the lower extremities. Claudication usually increases with age and is most common in people in their sixth or seventh decade of life. Risk factors for developing narrowing of the arteries that can cause claudication include smoking cigarettes, high blood pressure, and diabetes. Drugs are available to treat this condition.

Jet injector: A device that uses high pressure to push insulin through the skin and into the tissue.

Juvenile-onset diabetes: Former term used for type 1 diabetes.

Ketoacidosis: See diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA).

Ketone bodies: Often simply called ketones, one of the products of fat burning in the body when there is not enough insulin, your body is unable to use sugar (glucose) for energy and your body breaks down its own fat and protein. When fat is used, ketone bodies, an acid, appear in your urine and blood. A large amount of ketones in your system can lead to a serious condition called ketoacidosis. Ketones can be detected and monitored in your urine at home using products such as Ketostix, Chemstrips, and Acetest. When your blood sugar is consistently greater than 250 mg/dl, if you are ill or if you are pregnant and have diabetes, ketones should be checked regularly.

Kidney disease (nephropathy): In a person with diabetes, nephropathy is any one of several conditions caused by changes in the very small blood vessels in the kidneys. These changes cause scarring of the kidneys, which can eventually lead to kidney failure. People who have had diabetes for a long time may develop nephropathy. An early sign of nephropathy is when proteins can be detected in the urine.

Kidney threshold: See renal threshold.

Lancet: A fine, sharp pointed needle for pricking the skin used in blood sugar monitoring.

Laser treatment: The use of a strong beam of light (laser) to heal a damaged area a person with diabetes might receive laser treatments to heal blood vessels in the eye.

Late-onset diabetes: Former term used for type 2 diabetes.

Lipid: Another term for a fat or fat-like substance in the blood the body stores fat as energy for future use, just like a car that has a reserve fuel tank. When the body needs energy, it can break down lipids into fatty acids and burn them like glucose. Excess amounts of fats in the diet can cause fat buildup in the walls of the arteries -- called "atherosclerosis." Excess amounts of calories from fats or other nutrients can lead to an increase in weight gain.

Low blood sugar, low blood glucose: See hypoglycemia.

Meal plan (meal planning): Any strategy used to map out what you're going to eat. This term may refer to following a specific diet, or it may just indicate the process of thinking through what you plan to eat beforehand.

Metabolism: All of the physical and chemical processes in the body that occur when food is broken down, energy is created and wastes are produced.

Mg/dL (milligrams per deciliter): Measurement that indicates the amount of something like glucose in a specific amount of blood.

Mixed dose: A prescribed dose of insulin in which two types of insulin are combined and injected at once a mixed dose commonly combines a fast-acting and longer-acting insulin. A mixed dose can come in a pre-mixed syringe or be mixed at the time of injection. A mixed dose may be prescribed to provide better blood sugar control.

Natural no-calorie sweeteners: Similar to artificial sweeteners, except these come from a natural source. Stevia (Truvia, PureVia, etc.) is considered a natural sweetener because it comes from the stevia plant.

Nephropathy: Disease of the kidneys caused by damage to the small blood vessels or to the units in the kidneys that clean the blood people who have had diabetes for a long time may develop nephropathy.

Neurologist: A doctor who treats people who have problems of the nervous system (brain, spinal cord, and nerves).

Neuropathy: Nerve damage people who have had diabetes that is not well controlled may develop nerve damage.

Non-insulin dependent diabetes: Former term for type 2 diabetes.

Nutritionist: See dietitian.

Obesity: A term uses to describe excess body fat it is defined in terms of a person's weight and height, or their body mass index (BMI). A BMI over 30 is classified as being obese. Obesity makes your body less sensitive to insulin's action. Extra body fat is thought to be a risk factor for diabetes.

Ophthalmologist: A doctor who treats people with eye diseases or eye trauma.

Optometrist: A person professionally trained to test the eyes and to detect and treat eye problems, as well as some diseases, by prescribing and adapting corrective lenses.Some also get additional clinical training or complete a specialty fellowship after optometry school.

Oral diabetes medications: Medications that people take to lower the level of sugar in the blood oral diabetes medications are prescribed for people whose pancreas still produces some insulin. These medications are not used in diabetes during pregnancy.

Overweight: Refers to someone with a BMI of between 25 and 29.9, who is carrying excess body fat. Someone who is overweight has a higher risk of health problems such as type 2 diabetes.

Pancreas: An organ behind the lower part of the stomach that is about the size of a hand it makes insulin so the body can use sugar for energy.

Peak action: The time when the effect of something is as strong as it can be, such as when insulin is having the most effect on blood sugar.

Periodontal disease: Damage to the gums and tissues around the teeth people who have diabetes are more likely to have periodontal disease than people who do not have diabetes.

Peripheral neuropathy: A type of nerve damage most commonly affecting the feet and legs.

Peripheral vascular disease (PVD): An abnormal condition that affects the blood vessels outside the heart, usually the hands and feet often occurs as a result of decreased blood flow and narrowing of the arteries from atherosclerosis people who have had diabetes for a long time may develop PVD.

Podiatrist: A health professional who diagnoses and treats foot problems.

Polydipsia: Excessive thirst that lasts for long periods of time may be a sign of diabetes.

Polyphagia: Excessive hunger and eating may be a sign of diabetes. When insulin levels are decreased or there is insulin resistance, the cells of the body do not get enough sugar, and hunger develops. People with polyphagia often lose weight, even though they are eating more than normal, because the excess calories are lost in the urine as sugar (glucose).

Polyunsaturated fat: A type of fat that can be substituted for saturated fats in the diet and can reduce LDL ''bad'' cholesterol.

Polyuria: Increased need to urinate often a common sign of diabetes.

Protein: One of three main classes of food proteins are made of amino acids, which are called the "building blocks of the cells." Cells need protein to grow and to mend themselves. Protein is found in many foods, like meat, fish, poultry, eggs, legumes, and dairy products.

Rapid-acting Insulin: Covers insulin needs for meals eaten at the same time as the injection this type of insulin is used with longer-acting insulin. Includes Humalog, Novolog, and Apidra.

Rebound effect: See Somogyi effect.

Regular insulin: A type of insulin that is rapid-acting.

Renal: Relating to the kidneys.

Retina: The center part of the back lining of the eye that senses light it has many small blood vessels that are sometimes harmed when a person has had diabetes for a long time.

Retinopathy: A disease of the small blood vessels in the retina of the eye.

Risk factor: Anything that increases the chance of a person developing a disease or condition.

Saccharin: An artificial sweetener that is used in place of sugar because it has no calories and does not increase blood sugar it is sold as SugarTwin and Sweet'N Low.

Self-blood glucose monitoring: See home blood glucose monitoring.

Short-acting insulin: Covers insulin needs for meals eaten within 30-60 minutes includes humulin or novolin, or Velosulin (in an insulin pump).

Sodium: A mineral found in salt. Getting too much -- as most Americans do -- can raise your blood pressure and, in turn, raise your risk of heart attack and stroke. Because these problems are often tied to diabetes, it's important to watch your intake. Processed foods tend to be very high in sodium.

Somogyi effect: Also called "rebound effect," it occurs when there is an upward swing in blood sugar from an extremely low level of glucose in the blood to a very high level. It usually happens during the night and early morning hours. People who experience high levels of blood sugar in the morning may need to test their blood sugar levels in the middle of the night. If blood sugar levels are repeatedly low, addition of an evening snack or a lowering of insulin doses may be recommended.

Sorbitol: A sugar -- produced from fruits -- that the body uses slowly it is a sweetener used in diet foods and is called a "nutritive sweetener" because it has four calories in every gram, just like table sugar and starch. These compounds are used in many foods labeled as ''sugar free'' and ''no sugar added'' and can raise your blood glucose. Because a food is labeled ''sugar free,'' it doesn't necessarily mean carbohydrate-free.

Starch: A type of carbohydrate found in grains, as well as in starchy vegetables such as peas, corn, beans, and potatoes. Just like sugar (another type of carbohydrate), starch can raise your blood sugar, so it's important to pay attention to how much you're eating.

Stevia: A natural sugar substitute that has no calories Truvia is the brand name for a sweetener made from the stevia leaf.

Strength training:Physical activity designed to build muscle strength or muscle mass. Some examples include lifting free weights, working with weight machines, and exercising with resistance bands. Also called resistance exercise, it can help make your body use insulin more effectively.

Sucrose: Table sugar a form of sugar that the body must break down into a more simple form before the blood can absorb it and take it to the cells.

Sucralose: An artificial sweetener that is 600 times sweeter than sugar can be used in cooking. Splenda is a brand name of sucralose.

Sugar: A class of carbohydrates that tastes sweet sugar is a quick and easy fuel for the body to use. Some types of sugar are lactose, glucose, fructose, and sucrose.

Sugar alcohols: A type of low-calorie sweetener that's often used in "diet" and "sugar-free" foods. These usually end in "-ol." Examples include erythritol, sorbitol, and xylitol. Foods containing these sweeteners may still have carbs and can raise blood sugar, so be sure to check the nutrition label. Sugar alcohols may cause stomach upset in some people.

Sulfonylureas: Pills or capsules that people take to lower the level of sugar in the blood these oral diabetic medications work to lower your blood sugar by making your pancreas produce more insulin.

Triglyceride: Fats carried in the blood from the food we eat most of the fats we eat, including butter, margarines, and oils, are in triglyceride form. Excess triglycerides are stored in fat cells throughout the body. The body needs insulin to remove this type of fat from the blood.

Type 1 diabetes: A type of diabetes in which the insulin-producing cells (called beta cells) of the pancreas are damaged people with type 1 diabetes produce little or no insulin, so glucose cannot get into the body's cells for use as energy. This causes blood sugar to rise. People with type 1 diabetes must use insulin injections to control their blood sugar.

Type 2 diabetes: A type of diabetes in which the insulin produced is either not enough or the person's body does not respond normally to the amount present therefore, glucose in the blood cannot get into the body's cells for use as energy. This results in an increase in the level of glucose (sugar) in the blood.

U-100: See unit of insulin.

Ulcer: A break in the skin a deep sore. People with diabetes may develop ulcers from minor scrapes on the feet or legs, from cuts that heal slowly, or from the rubbing of shoes that don't fit well. Ulcers can become infected and should be treated promptly.

Ultralente insulin: A type of insulin that is long-acting usually, the action of this type of insulin works for 25-36 hours after injection. This type of insulin has an onset of action four to five hours after injecting and works most powerfully at eight to 14 hours after injection. Other types of long-acting insulin include nsulin detemir (Levemir) and iinsulin glargine (Lantus)..

Unit of insulin: The basic measure of insulin U-100 is the most common concentration of insulin. U-100 means that there are 100 units of insulin per milliliter (ml) of liquid. For the occasional patient who has severe insulin resistance, insulin is available as a U-500 form.

Unstable diabetes: See brittle diabetes.

Urine testing: Checking urine to see if it contains ketones if you have type 1 diabetes, are pregnant and have diabetes, or have gestational diabetes, your doctor may ask you to check your urine for ketones. This is an easy test done at home with a dipstick measure.

Urologist: A doctor who specializes in treatment of the urinary tract for men and women, as well as treatment of the genital organs for males.

Vaginitis: An inflammation or infection of the vaginal tissues a woman with this condition may have itching or burning or vaginal discharge. Women who have diabetes may develop vaginitis more often than women who do not have diabetes.

Vascular: Relating to the body's blood vessels (arteries, veins, and capillaries).

Vein: A blood vessel that carries blood to the heart.

Vitrectomy: A procedure in which the gel from the center of the eyeball is removed because it has blood and scar tissue that blocks vision an eye surgeon replaces the clouded gel with a clear fluid.

Whole grains: Grains that have the entire grain kernel, including the nutrient-rich bran and germ. Refined grains (such as white bread), on the other hand, have had the bran and germ removed and contain only the starchy endosperm. Whole grains have more fiber than refined ones, so they're digested more slowly and won't cause your blood sugar to rise as fast.

Xylitol: A nutritive sweetener used in dietary foods it is a sugar alcohol that the body uses slowly, and contains fewer calories than table sugar.

Sources

American Diabetes Association. "Low-Calorie Sweeteners," "Common Terms," "Carbohydrate Counting," "Your Health Care Team," "Keeping a Food Journal," "Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)," "Types of Activity/What We Recommend," "Planning Meals," "Protein Foods," "Cutting Back on Sodium," "Types of Carbohydrates," "Sugar Alcohols."

National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases.

Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: "What is an RDN?" "How is an RDN Different Than a Nutritionist?" "Metabolism Myths and Facts."

American Heart Association: "About Cholesterol," "Fats 101," "Fiber Up, Slim Down."

CDC: "Defining Overweight and Obesity, "Carbohydrates," "Protein."

Richard Cotton, national director of certification, American College of Sports Medicine.


Genes

A dominant allele is an allele that is almost always expressed, even if only one copy is present.

The Globin Genes: An Example of Transcriptional Regulation

An example of transcriptional control occurs in the family of genes responsible for the production of globin.

Transcription, the synthesis of an RNA copy from a sequence of DNA, is carried out by an enzyme called RNA polymerase.

Transcription, the synthesis of an RNA copy from a sequence of DNA, is carried out by an enzyme called RNA polymerase.

The beginning of translation, the process in which the genetic code carried by mRNA directs the synthesis of proteins from amino acids, differs slightly for prokaryotes and eukaryotes, although both processes always initiate at a codon for methionine.

So, the possible allele combinations result in a particular blood type in this way:
OO = blood type O
AO = blood type A
BO = blood type B
AB = blood type AB
AA = blood type A
BB = blood type B

You can see that a person with blood type B may have a B and an O allele, or they may have two B alleles.

Gene Switching: Turning Genes On and Off

The estimated number of genes for humans, less than 30,000, is not so different from the 25,300 known genes of Arabidopsis thaliana, commonly called mustard grass.

So, the possible allele combinations result in a particular blood type in this way:
OO = blood type O
AO = blood type A
BO = blood type B
AB = blood type AB
AA = blood type A
BB = blood type B

You can see that a person with blood type B may have a B and an O allele, or they may have two B alleles.

Gene Switching: Turning Genes On and Off

The estimated number of genes for humans, less than 30,000, is not so different from the 25,300 known genes of Arabidopsis thaliana, commonly called mustard grass.

Mendel's Principles of Genetic Inheritance

Law of Segregation: Each of the two inherited factors (alleles) possessed by the parent will segregate and pass into separate gametes (eggs or sperm) during meiosis, which will each carry only one of the factors.

The Core Gene Sequence: Introns and Exons

Genes make up about 1 percent of the total DNA in our genome.

Molecular Genetics: The Study of Heredity, Genes, and DNA

As we have just learned, DNA provides a blueprint that directs all cellular activities and specifies the developmental plan of multicellular organisms.

The Physical Structure of the Human Genome

Inside each of our cells lies a nucleus, a membrane-bounded region that provides a sanctuary for genetic information.

Although DNA is the carrier of genetic information in a cell, proteins do the bulk of the work.

Gene Prediction Using Computers

When the complete mRNA sequence for a gene is known, computer programs are used to align the mRNA sequence with the appropriate region of the genomic DNA sequence.

So, the possible allele combinations result in a particular blood type in this way:
OO = blood type O
AO = blood type A
BO = blood type B
AB = blood type AB
AA = blood type A
BB = blood type B

You can see that a person with blood type B may have a B and an O allele, or they may have two B alleles.

Mendel's Principles of Genetic Inheritance

Law of Segregation: Each of the two inherited factors (alleles) possessed by the parent will segregate and pass into separate gametes (eggs or sperm) during meiosis, which will each carry only one of the factors.

The Physical Structure of the Human Genome

Inside each of our cells lies a nucleus, a membrane-bounded region that provides a sanctuary for genetic information.

Molecular Genetics: The Study of Heredity, Genes, and DNA

As we have just learned, DNA provides a blueprint that directs all cellular activities and specifies the developmental plan of multicellular organisms.

Mechanisms of Genetic Variation and Heredity

Does Everyone Have the Same Genes?

The Physical Structure of the Human Genome

Inside each of our cells lies a nucleus, a membrane-bounded region that provides a sanctuary for genetic information.

The Physical Structure of the Human Genome

Inside each of our cells lies a nucleus, a membrane-bounded region that provides a sanctuary for genetic information.

Gene Prediction Using Computers

When the complete mRNA sequence for a gene is known, computer programs are used to align the mRNA sequence with the appropriate region of the genomic DNA sequence.

The Physical Structure of the Human Genome

Inside each of our cells lies a nucleus, a membrane-bounded region that provides a sanctuary for genetic information.


Is my terminology for proteins correct? - Biology

Amino acids are special organic molecules used by living organisms to make proteins. The main elements in amino acids are carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen. There are twenty different kinds of amino acids that combine to make proteins in our bodies. Our bodies can actually make some amino acids, but the rest we must get from our food.

Proteins are long chains of amino acids. There are thousands of different proteins in the human body. They provide all sorts of functions to help us survive.

Why are they important?

Proteins are essential for life. Around 20% of our body is made up of proteins. Every cell in our body uses proteins to perform functions.

Proteins are made inside cells. When a cell makes a protein it is called protein synthesis. The instructions for how to make a protein are held in DNA molecules inside the cell nucleus. The two major stages in making a protein are called transcription and translation.

The first step in making a protein is called transcription. This is when the cell makes a copy (or "transcript") of the DNA. The copy of DNA is called RNA because it uses a different type of nucleic acid called ribonucleic acid. The RNA is used in the next step, which is called translation.

The next step in making a protein is called translation. This is when the RNA is converted (or "translated") into a sequence of amino acids that makes up the protein.

  • The RNA moves to the ribosome. This type of RNA is called the "messenger" RNA. It is abbreviated as mRNA where the "m" is for messenger.
  • The mRNA attaches itself to the ribosome.
  • The ribosome figures out where to start on the mRNA by finding a special three letter "begin" sequence called a codon.
  • The ribosome then moves down the strand of mRNA. Every three letters represents another amino acid molecule. The ribosome builds a string of amino acids based on the codes in the mRNA.
  • When the ribosome sees the "stop" code, it ends the translation and the protein is complete.


Watch the video: Welches PROTEIN ist perfekt für DICH? Wissenschaftlich geprüft! (November 2022).