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Translate DNA to Protein

Translate DNA to Protein


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Assuming the sequence shown is read left to right, what is the sequence of the protein produced?

sequence: 5'-ATGTACTTCCATCTGGAATAG-3'

MY ATTEMPT: I know RNA is synthesized 5 to 3. This is throwing me off because if we read the above sequence from left to right then we are going to synthesize 3 to 5. If I ignore this for now, I get an mRNA of 3'-UACAUGAAGGUAGACCUUAUC-5' from this i could easily get the protein looking at a mRNA to protein chart. Is this correct?


Since the sequence starts with an initiation codon and ends with a stop codon I think it's safe to conclude that this is the coding strand. The coding strand has the same sequence as the transcribed RNA (except T>U). This is because it is the other strand of the DNA that is the template for the synthesis of an RNA. The RNA is indeed made 5'>3', but the template it uses has to run in the opposite direction.

5'-ATGTACTTCCATCTGGAATAG-3' 3'-TACATGAAGGTAGACCTTATC-5' template strand 5'-AUGUACUUCCAUCUGGAAUAG-3' mRNA transcript 3'-TACATGAAGGTAGACCTTATC-5' template strand (read from left to right by the polymerase)

and the sequence of the protein is MetTyr… etc


EMBOSS has a tool for doing this: http://www.ebi.ac.uk/Tools/st/emboss_transeq/


Translate DNA to Protein - Biology

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All cells contain genetic information in the form of DNA molecules. Genes are regions in the DNA that contain the instructions that code for the formation of proteins.

Today’s performance objective: students will know and be able to : create a visual representation of one of the parts involved in protein synthesis

Essential question of the Day: what does the structure of a gene actually look like ? What do the parts represent ?

1) students will take notes on DNA replication and take a pic of notes

2) notes on transcription and translation

QFD : Holidays are all different depending on the company and time of your life.

This weeks learning objective : LS1.A: Structure and Function

All cells contain genetic information in the form of DNA molecules. Genes are regions in the DNA that contain the instructions that code for the formation of proteins.

Today’s performance objective: students will know and be able to : demonstrate an understanding of the objective by completing a webquest

Essential question of the Day: what role does DNA play in creating proteins?

QFD : The holidays stress people out so much. I suggest you keep it simple and try to have as much fun as you can.Giada De Laurentiis

This weeks learning objective : LS1.A: Structure and Function

All cells contain genetic information in the form of DNA molecules. Genes are regions in the DNA that contain the instructions that code for the formation of proteins.

Today’s performance objective: students will know and be able to : deo,on started and understand of protein synthesis and DNA replication by performing a kinesthetic demonstration

Essential question of the Day: which components are most necessary for DNA replication to occur, rank them in order and justify your ranking in a few words

QFD : Holidays are all different depending on the company and time of your life.

This weeks learning objective : LS1.A: Structure and Function

All cells contain genetic information in the form of DNA molecules. Genes are regions in the DNA that contain the instructions that code for the formation of proteins.

Today’s performance objective: students will know and be able to : demonstrate an understanding of the objective by achieving 70% or higher on a test

Essential question of the Day: what role does DNA play in creating proteins?

1) final project and final exam discussion

Friday Transcription handout

QFD : The holidays stress people out so much. I suggest you keep it simple and try to have as much fun as you can.Giada De Laurentiis

This weeks learning objective : LS1.A: Structure and Function

All cells contain genetic information in the form of DNA molecules. Genes are regions in the DNA that contain the instructions that code for the formation of proteins.

Today’s performance objective: students will know and be able to : deo,on started and understand of protein synthesis and DNA replication by performing a kinesthetic demonstration

Essential question of the Day: which components are most necessary for DNA replication to occur, rank them in order and justify your ranking in a few words


It is the method in which the information found in mRNA molecules is used in making protein. It is specifically called translation because it is where the code for protein production is found.

Transcription and translation processes are interrelated but they vary in functions. Below is the table that outlines the differences between transcription and translation. (3, 4)

Point of comparison Transcription Translation
Uses/purpose Transcription is necessary for making copies of RNA of every gene. Such copies are necessary for cellular biochemistry functions. Translation makes it possible to synthesize proteins, which are essential in various bodily functions.
Meaning Transcription is a process by which the genes are used to create RNAs in their functional forms. (4) It is all about protein synthesis. The step is called translation because it translates what is written in the mRNA template. (5)
Where the process takes place It occurs in the nucleus. It occurs in the cytoplasm.
End products Micro RNAs or non-coding RNAs, rRNA, mRNA, and tRNA. Protein
Initiation phase The transcription process is triggered to start upon the binding of RNA polymerase proteins to DNA promoters a substance that directs the location of the initial phase of transcription. (5, 6) The translation phase begins when the ribosome subunits, tRNA, and initiation factor bind to mRNA.
Termination phase The end phase is marked by the release of RNA transcript and detachment of polymerase from the DNA. The signal that the termination phase is about to happen is when the ribosome meets one of the three stop codons. The meeting leads to the dissociation of the ribosome causing the release of the polypeptide. (6, 7)
Localization The transcription phase takes place in the cytoplasm of prokaryotes and the nucleus of eukaryotes. The site of the translation process is the cytoplasm in prokaryotes and ribosomes in eukaryotes.
Antibiotics The process of transcription can be inhibited by certain types of antibiotics, specifically rifampicin and 8-hydroxyquinoline. (7) Antibiotics that inhibit translation are chloramphenicol, anisomycin, tetracycline, cycloheximide, puromycin, erythromycin, and streptomycin.
Types of RNA formed Non-genetic RNA The expression of RNA leads to forming a polypeptide chain.
Urgency Transcription happens when there is a need for a specific gene product for a particular tissue. It always follows transcription.
Nature It is a highly controlled process. The DNA-dependent RNA polymerase enzyme catalyzes and regulates the entire process. Various factors control the translation process such as the enzyme aminoacetyl tRNA synthetase. (8, 9)
Process in eukaryotes Eukaryotes’ RNA polymerase is unique and complex. It follows a complementary base pairing DNA rules. It happens in the ribosomes linked to the endoplasmic reticulum.
Process in prokaryotes The whole process is protein-regulated and functions mainly as signals. The process is closed by blocking the RNA polymerase. The process of translation is particularly confined in the cytoplasm.
Gene expression order It is the first and most important step in gene expression. (9) Translation always follows transcription. Although it is the second step, it is of utmost importance as it concludes the process of gene expression.
Order of occurrence It occurs before the translation process. It occurs after the transcription process.
Precursor/prerequisite Non-coding/antisense DNA strand mRNA produced from the transcription
Materials needed Raw materials such as adenine, uracil, guanine, and cytosine. 22 amino acids
Elongation process RNA sequence’s elongation happens by way of binding the complementary base pair to the new sequence. Protein elongation takes place through the binding of amino acids.
Enzymatic requirements DNA-dependent RNA polymerase Aminoacetyl tRNA synthetase
Regulation In eukaryotes, different transcriptional factors regulate the transcription process. for prokaryotes, it is the operons that regulate the process. (9, 10) The control of the translation process is dependent on the binding of ribosomal units to the translation complex.
Post-event modification Editing of pre-mRNA through means of splicing before the mature mRNA reaches the ribosome. It includes the folding of polypeptide chains to access 3-D configuration.
Method of detection There are various ways to detect the transcription process such as northern blotting, DNA microarray, RT-PCR, and in-situ hybridization. Some of the methods used to detect the translation process are immunoblotting, western blotting, protein sequencing, and enzyme assay.

Conclusion

  • When talking about molecular biology, transcription and translation are the two main topics.
  • Transcription pertains to mRNA synthesis from DNA while the synthesis of protein from mRNA is referred to as translation.
  • Both transcription and translation are processed that belong to cell central dogma along with replication.
  • The intermediate step is transcription whereas the final step is translation. Both play a huge role in molecular biology but note that they are not the same.
  • They look quite related but not quite as the processes happen in a different part of the cell.

In a nutshell, transcription is the process of constructing mRNA from a gene with the help of RNA polymerase. The translation is when a chain of amino acid a-protein is constructed with the aid of tRNA and rRNA.


Eukaryotic RNA Processing

The newly transcribed eukaryotic mRNAs must undergo several processing steps before they can be transferred from the nucleus to the cytoplasm and translated into a protein. The additional steps involved in eukaryotic mRNA maturation create a molecule that is much more stable than a prokaryotic mRNA. For example, eukaryotic mRNAs last for several hours, whereas the typical prokaryotic mRNA lasts no more than five seconds.

The mRNA transcript is first coated in RNA-stabilizing proteins to prevent it from degrading while it is processed and exported out of the nucleus. This occurs while the pre-mRNA still is being synthesized by adding a special nucleotide &ldquocap&rdquo to the 5' end of the growing transcript. In addition to preventing degradation, factors involved in protein synthesis recognize the cap to help initiate translation by ribosomes.

Once elongation is complete, an enzyme then adds a string of approximately 200 adenine residues to the 3' end, called the poly-A tail. This modification further protects the pre-mRNA from degradation and signals to cellular factors that the transcript needs to be exported to the cytoplasm.

Eukaryotic genes are composed of protein-coding sequences called exons (ex-on signifies that they are expressed) and intervening sequences called introns (int-ron denotes their intervening role). Introns are removed from the pre-mRNA during processing. Intron sequences in mRNA do not encode functional proteins. It is essential that all of a pre-mRNA&rsquos introns be completely and precisely removed before protein synthesis so that the exons join together to code for the correct amino acids. If the process errs by even a single nucleotide, the sequence of the rejoined exons would be shifted, and the resulting protein would be nonfunctional. The process of removing introns and reconnecting exons is called splicing (Figure 9.3.5). Introns are removed and degraded while the pre-mRNA is still in the nucleus.

Figure 9.3.5: Eukaryotic mRNA contains introns that must be spliced out. A 5' cap and 3' tail are also added.

Summary

In prokaryotes, mRNA synthesis is initiated at a promoter sequence on the DNA template. Elongation synthesizes new mRNA. Termination liberates the mRNA and occurs by mechanisms that stall the RNA polymerase and cause it to fall off the DNA template. Newly transcribed eukaryotic mRNAs are modified with a cap and a poly-A tail. These structures protect the mature mRNA from degradation and help export it from the nucleus. Eukaryotic mRNAs also undergo splicing, in which introns are removed and exons are reconnected with single-nucleotide accuracy. Only finished mRNAs are exported from the nucleus to the cytoplasm.


Transcription

For creating proteins there is a special organelle in the cell called the ribosome. The ribosome is found in the cytoplasm of the cell. However, the genetic code on the DNA is contained in the nucleus, which is in a different part of the cell. This makes for a bit of a problem, as the ribosome needs the genetic code to make proteins. Taking the DNA into the cytoplasm wouldn't be possible - remember that this is a huge molecule.

To overcome this problem, the cell has found another simple solution: It creates a small copy, or a 'transcript,' of the specific gene, through the copy process of transcription. This copy is a small RNA molecule, called messengerRNA. RNAs are very close relatives of DNA. They consist of nearly the same material. But, whereas DNA is double stranded, RNA is built by only one strand. RNAs are small enough to exit the nucleus through a small pore in the membrane.


DNA Transcription & Translation: Synthesis of Proteins

DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) is a large molecule containing the genes that code instructions for the synthesis of proteins. The code consists of a sequence of repeating subunits, or nucleotides. Each nucleotide has three parts:

  1. a phosphate group (an acid),
  2. a sugar (in the case of DNA, deoxyribose), and
  3. a ring of carbon and nitrogen atoms (the nitrogen can form a bond with hydrogen so the nucleotide is basic).

A chain of nucleotides (nucleic acids) is formed by linking the phosphate group of one nucleotide to the sugar of an adjacent nucleotide. The bases stick out from the side of the phosphate-sugar backbone. The 3rd component described above, the base consisting of a ring of carbon and nitrogen atoms, occurs in 4 forms for DNA. These bases can be divided into two classes: the purine bases (adenine and guanine), which have double rings of nitrogen and carbon atoms, and the pyrimidine bases (cytosine and thymine), which have only a single ring.

A molecule of DNA consists of two polynucleotide chains coiled around each other in the form of a double helix. The chains are held together by hydrogen bonds between purine and pyrimidine bases – specifically, adenine is paired with thymine and guanine is paired with cytosine. Thus, one chain in the double helix is complementary to the other.

From: www.thepepproject.net P = phosphate S = sugar

Protein Synthesis

DNA is “read” by using three-base sequences to form “words” that direct the production of specific amino acids. These three-base sequences, known as triplets, or codons, are arranged in a linear sequence along the DNA. A linear stretch of DNA that codes for a specific protein is called a gene. The entirety of genes in the human population is termed the human genome.

Most of the DNA is contained in the nucleus of the cell (a small amount is in the mitochondria), yet most protein synthesis occurs in the cytoplasm of the cell. Since DNA molecules are too large to pass through the nuclear membrane into the cytoplasm, a message must carry the genetic information from the nucleus into the cytoplasm. This message is carried by messenger RNA (mRNA ribonucleic acid) molecules, small single-stranded nucleic acids that contain the coding information of individual genes. The passage of information from DNA to mRNA in the nucleus is called transcription because an individual gene’s DNA sequence is actually transcribed into a corresponding RNA.

Then, the mRNA moves into the cytoplasm where it directs the assembly of a specific sequence of amino acids to form the gene’s protein – this process is called translation. Translation occurs on ribosomes either free in the cytoplasm or attached to the endoplasmic reticulum. Thus, the synthesis of a protein is governed by the information in its DNA, with the help of messengers (mRNA) and translators (tRNA).

In the nucleus, DNA is transcribed to RNA. The mRNA carries the message out of the nucleus to the ribosome in the cytoplasm where the tRNA helps translate the message to make a protein.


Amino Acid - the building blocks of proteins there are 20 different types

Codon - a sequence of three organic bases in a nucleic acid that code for a specific amino acid

Exon - Coding region of eukaryotic gene. Parts of the gene that are expressed

Gene- a length of DNA made up of a number of codons codes for a specific protein

Intron - Non coding region of a gene that separates exons

Polypeptide - a chain of amino acids joined by a peptide bond

Ribosome - a cellular organelle that functions as a protein-making workbench.

RNA - Ribonucleic Acid a nucleic acid that acts as a messenger, carrying information from the DNA to the Ribosomes

Elongation of an RNA strand. Transcription is well underway: you can clearly see how complementary base pairing rules dictate the sequence of bases in the growing RNA strand.


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4.2 DNA and protein synthesis (transcription and translation) exam questions | A Level Biology AQA

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  • Topic: 4.2 protein synthesis - transcription and translation
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  • Could be used as an activity in class, given as homework, used as an end of topic test, or for revision

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Watch the video: Transcription and Translation: From DNA to Protein (January 2023).