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What is this frog I found

What is this frog I found


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What type of frog or toad is this? I found him in my backyard in southern Alabama and he is clearly very small. I'm not sure what species it is, it's mostly brown but has small spots on the top of his mouth and under his eyes and he is completely white on his belly. Anyone have any idea what this little guy is?


Observation of a Living Frog

Looking for live frogs to go with this lab? You can order them from a variety of sources or raise them yourself if you can find and collect tadpoles in the spring. Toads are also an acceptable alternative.

Procedure: Working in groups of 4, teams will observe the behaviors of a live frog. Find the answers to all questions, and report on a separate piece of paper. For each number, include the question you are answering on your paper (the heading). The bulleted lists are there to help you answer the question entirely. Make sure you are thorough.

Materials: One grass frog, small terrarium, crickets or mealworms, ice packs, flashlights.

Frog Handling: When handling the frog be careful not to allow the frog to slip from your grasp and injure itself by jumping onto the floor or the table. A wet paper towel can be used to gently hold the frog.


What is this frog I found - Biology

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Frog, any of various tailless amphibians belonging to the order Anura. Used strictly, the term may be limited to any member of the family Ranidae (true frogs), but more broadly the name frog is often used to distinguish the smooth-skinned, leaping anurans from squat, warty, hopping ones, which are called toads.

A brief treatment of frogs follows. For full treatment, see Anura (frogs and toads).

In general, frogs have protruding eyes, no tail, and strong, webbed hind feet that are adapted for leaping and swimming. They also possess smooth, moist skins. Many are predominantly aquatic, but some live on land, in burrows, or in trees. A number depart from the typical form. Sedge frogs (Hyperolius), for example, are climbing African frogs with adhesive toe disks. The flying frogs (Rhacophorus) are tree-dwelling, Old World rhacophorids they can glide 12 to 15 metres (40 to 50 feet) by means of expanded webbing between the fingers and toes (see tree frog).

The snout-vent length of frogs ranges from 9.8 mm (0.4 inch) in the Brazilian Psyllophryne didactyla to 30 cm (12 inches) in the West African Conraua goliath. The male anuran is generally smaller than the female.

Although many frogs have poisonous skin glands, these toxins do not usually provide protection from predatory mammals, birds, and snakes. Edible anurans rely on camouflage some blend with their backgrounds, while others change colours. Several species have bright colours on their underparts that flash when the frog moves, possibly confusing enemies or serving as a warning of the frog’s toxicity. Most frogs eat insects, other small arthropods, or worms (see video ), but a number of them also eat other frogs, rodents, and reptiles.

The annual breeding of frogs usually takes place in fresh water. In the sexual embrace (amplexus), the male clasps the female from behind and extrudes sperm over the eggs as they are ejected by the female. The eggs, laid in numbers varying from a few hundred to several thousand (depending on the species), then float off in clusters, strings, or sheets and may become attached to the stems of water plants the eggs of some species sink. The tadpole hatches in a few days to a week or more and metamorphoses into a frog within two months to three years. During metamorphosis the lungs develop, limbs appear, the tail is absorbed, and the mouth becomes typically froglike. In some tropical frogs, the eggs are deposited on land and the young hatch as froglets, rather than tadpoles.


What is this frog I found - Biology

Classification:

Common name: Indian bull frog

Habit/Habitat:

They are cosmopolitan found in fresh water or live in or near water like ponds, pools, stream, lake etc or damp places.Water is required for respiration.They required water for respiration, protection, to complete lifecycle.They are carnivorous.Sometimes they eat their own species.Their main foods are insects, worms, spider, molluscans, crustaceous.They are a cold-blooded animal.

In hibernation, the frog buried in the damp mud and cease all the activities like feeding etc.The mouth and nostril are closed, respiration is only by cutaneous.Heart beat rate slows down.They utilize facts and glycogen stored in their body.

In extreme hot temperature i.e. at 40-degree celsius, they are affected, inactive and may also die.So, to save their life they bury in soil.In may and June, they go for aestivation.

Male frog during rainy season produces croaking sound with the help of vocal sacs in a throat.The croaking sound is a mating call.The male frog is well developed than the female.

External features of frog:

External features include shape, size, coloration which is visible. It is also the outer appearance.

Shape:

They are bilaterally symmetrical, streamlined body i.e pointed at anterior and posterior region and the middle part is broad. They are dorsoventrally flattened. Streamlined body help for leaping in the land, swimming in the water, walking.

It is variable in size.Generally, its size varies from 12-18 cm long, and width 5-8 cm.

Colour:

The frogs are protectively coloured and cause camouflage. The dorsal side is green in colour with a yellow mid-dorsal line which extends from the tip of snout to vent. The dorsal side is with black and brown. The ventral side is pale yellow in colour. So, they are protected in their environment.Colour is due to chromatophores.

Divison of body:

The body is divided into head and trunk.

The head is triangular, flattened with short narrow blunt interior end called snout. The posterior region of the head is bold which is directly attached to the trunk. A pair of nostril lies dorsally at the tip of the snout. It bears mouth, nostrils, eyes, brow spot and tympanum on the upper side and throat on the lower side.

spot and tympanum on the upper side and throat on the lower side.

The mouth lies on the snout which is wide transverse slit-like aperture which extends from one side of the tympanum to other. It is very large as it preys on larger food materials.

A pair of nostril lies dorsally at the tip of the snout.Through it fresh air enter inside the body.

Eye:
Two large spherical bulged eye lies on the top of head laterally.The large eye compensates the absence of neck. It has immovable upper eyelid and movable lower eyelid. The nictitating membrane arises from the lower eyelid which is transparent, thin membrane and covered the eyes completely while they are in the water. So, it is protective.In land, it clears the dust particle and keeps the eye moist.

Below and behind the eyes a circular depressed patch of skin which is dark in the colour called tympanum is present.It plays a role in receiving sounds.

It is a light patch of skin dorsally and median, in front of the eye. It is also known as the third eye.It is a vestigial organ and below it lies the pineal gland.

A pair of a bluish patch of skin which lies on either side of a throat of male frog which acts as a resonator to make sound louder.

Trunk:

A trunk is dorsoventrally flattened, broad and the back side of which is raised to form a hump due to the connection between pelvic girdle and vertebra. Dorsally, it has a fold of skin called elica and the trunk bear an opening called cloacal aperture through which gametes, urine and faeces comes out.It contains forelimbs and hind limbs.

Two pair of limbs arises laterally from the trunk. The forelimb is short which absorb external shock while landing whereas hind limb is very long and muscularized for jumping and swimming.Forelimb consists of the brachium, antebrachium wrist and hand with four digits.

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Things to remember
  • They are cosmopolitan found in fresh water or live in or near water like ponds, pools, stream, lake etc or damp places.
  • They are a cold-blooded animal.
  • In hibernation, the frog buried in the damp mud and cease all the activities like feeding etc.
  • In extreme hot temperature i.e. at 40-degree celsius, they are affected, inactive and may also die.
  • The croaking sound is mating call.
  • The body is divided in head and trunk.
  • External features include shape, size, coloration which is visible from outside.
  • It includes every relationship which established among the people.
  • There can be more than one community in a society. Community smaller than society.
  • It is a network of social relationships which cannot see or touched.
  • common interests and common objectives are not necessary for society.

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Which characteristic of life best describes the life cycle of a frog? having cells using energy responding to the environment growing and developing

growing and developing best describes the life cycle of a frog.

the frog grows and develops from a tadpole slowly. having cells, using energy and responding to the environment are part of the growth and development of a frog.

Explanation - Frogs lays eggs in order to give birth to their young ones. The number of eggs laid varies from one species to another. The eggs hatches and releases tadpoles from it. Tadpoles compulsorily swims inside the water.

However, frog is both aquatic and terrestrial animal. In order to come to the land, tadpoles undergo the process of metamorphosis in which every organ of tadpole has to change. Within a day, the tadpole grow and develops into a frog.


Frog Anatomy Coloring Worksheet

  • Contributed by Shannan Muskopf
  • High School Biology Instructor at Granite City School District
  • Sourced from Biology Corner

Frog Dissection Coloring

When the abdominal cavity of the frog is opened, many organs of the digestive and urogenital systems can be observed.
As you read the descriptions of the organs below, color them on the diagram.

  1. Leading from the mouth is a tube that connects to the stomach. Color the esophagus pink.
  2. The largest organ is the liver, and it consists of multiple lobes. Color the right lobe (a) light brown. Color the left anterior lobe (b) medium brown, and the left posterior (c) lobe dark brown. The liver has several jobs related to digestion and detoxification.
  3. Tucked under the liver is the gall bladder, which stores bile that is produced by the liver. color the gall bladder green and the bile duct (3b) a darker green.
  4. The gall bladder connects to the duodenum of the small intestine. Color the duodenum light blue.
  5. The duodenum connects to the curly part of the small intestine known as the ileum. The ileum is where nutrients are absorbed into the blood. Color the ileum dark blue.
  6. The spleen is an organ that has an immune function and is found within the coils of the intestine. Color it red.
  7. The ileum connects to the large intestine and the cloaca. Water is reabsorbed in the large intestine and wastes are stored at the cloaca before exiting the anus. Color this area orange.
  8. At the lowest part of the abdominal cavity is a thin pouch for storing urine. Color the bladder yellow.
  9. The stomach can be viewed if you lift the liver and is often curved, this is the first site of chemical digestion in the frog. Color the stomach orange.
  10. Within the curve of the stomach is a gland called the pancreas. The pancreas is involved in the digestion and the uptake of sugars. Color the pancreas yellow.
  11. The coils of the small intestine are held together by a thin membrane called the mesentery. Color it pink.
  12. A female frog will have tiny curling tubes deep in the abdominal cavity that carry eggs. Color the oviducts red.
  13. Also deep within the cavity are bean shaped organs, the kidneys which filter wastes from the blood, creating urine
  14. which is then stored in the bladder. Color the kidney grey.

After reading the descriptions, write down the structure based on the description. Use the bold words above.

_________________________ Carries eggs in female frogs
_________________________ First site of chemical digestion
_________________________ Stores solid waste, eggs, sperm
_________________________ Filters blood, makes urine
_________________________ Digestion, uptake of sugar
_________________________ Holds the coils of small intestine
_________________________ Stores urine
_________________________ First part of the small intestine
_________________________Stores Bile


Disease causing mass deaths of frogs reaches Britain

A disease that causes mass die-offs in frogs has been found in captive UK populations for the first time, scientists have warned.

Severe perkinsea infection (SPI) has caused large tadpole mortality events across the US, and this is the first proof that its geographic range is spreading. Researchers also found the disease-causing microbe in wild and seemingly healthy populations in Panama, where some of the most rapid declines in frog populations globally have occurred.

“This has alarming implications for conservation, as many amphibian species are suffering catastrophic population decline,” the researchers say in their paper, published in Biology Letters. The disease causes bloating in frog tadpoles, leaving them unable to dive, and leading to rapid death from multiple-organ failure. Separate research suggests the infection causes more than 95% mortality in affected populations.

The disease was found in European tree frogs bought from a pet store and kept in an aquarium in Surrey. It probably came in via contaminated tank water or equipment, but it is almost impossible to trace the source. Currently, there is no evidence of SPI in wild amphibian populations in the UK or Europe, but there has been little testing. “Where we’ve looked, we’ve seen it,” said Prof Tom Richards from the University of Oxford, one of the paper’s authors.

A frog in Panama, thought to be a juvenile Craugastor fitzingeri, found on an expedition to understand infectious microbes in the amphibians. Photograph: Thomas Richards

Nearly one in three amphibian species is threatened with extinction, and emerging infectious disease, along with habitat destruction, is the main driver of decline. There is no cure for SPI, which was first detected in New Hampshire in 1999 and is now recognised as one of the most significant causes of mass mortalities among tadpoles in the US.

To do the research, scientists ethically euthanised tadpoles and dissected liver tissue, which is the primary site of infection. They then used a DNA detection method to see if the parasite was present. Ten of the 81 tadpoles tested in Panama had the SPI-causing protist organism, referred to as the pathogenic perkinsea clade (PPC). Five of 10 tadpoles taken from the UK aquarium where the tree frogs were breeding had it.

Researchers did not wait to see whether the disease developed in populations in Panama, whereas in the UK aquarium population, tadpoles had already developed the disease, which is why the aquarium owner contacted the team. The causal link between the PPC pathogen that causes SPI disease has yet to be proved but existing literature shows a “strong association”, said Richards.

Researchers are calling for large-scale screening of amphibian populations, particularly those being traded, to monitor disease and reduce the risk of spread.

“If we wait for more experimental tests and don’t change policy [on screening for disease] then it’s too late. I find this all very reminiscent of the Covid situation – ‘Oh it’s coming, it’s coming, we’re not sure if it’s a real threat yet’ – then it’s too late,” said Richards. “Obviously, the world cares a lot less about frogs, but maybe it should care a bit more.

“Wider food webs depend on frogs, take out one element of the web and the whole thing collapses,” said Richards, who has set up a UK website called Tadpole Doctor so that people can help to identify potential disease early. Next, researchers want to test for the disease in India, other areas of Europe and northern Australia.

The international trade in frogs for meat and for zoological and private collections is very large. More than $100m (£70m) a year is spent on the trade in meat alone of just two frog species. Disease flourishes when habitats are destroyed and populations that wouldn’t naturally meet are put in contact with one another, often in highly stressful conditions.

Dr Mark Wilber, an ecologist from the University of Tennessee who was not involved in the research, said: “Hundreds of amphibian species have had, or currently are experiencing, population declines due to infectious disease.


Any frog in our collection that tests positive for chytrid receives an anti-fungal treatment. We place them into a bath containing anti-fungal solution for 10 minutes, and repeat this step every day for 10 days.

This amphibian rescue pod in Panama is home to an assurance colony of critically endangered frogs. Gratwicke and his colleagues at the Panama Amphibian Rescue and Conservation Project are working to develop methodologies that will reduce the impact of the amphibian chytrid fungus. They hope to reintroduce the frogs under their care back to the wild.


Respiration in Frog

The process of gaseous exchange (O 2 and CO 2 ), i.e. intake of oxygen and liberation of carbon-dioxide and utilization of oxygen to breakdown food to release energy is called respiration. The energy is released during the process of respiration.

C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 → 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + energy

There are three types of respiration in frog:

1. Pulmonary respiration: Frog respires by pulmonary respiration when the need for oxygen is great, i.e. during the time of swimming and jumping. The respiration through the lungs is called pulmonary respiration. Many organs function during the respiration:

i) External names: A pair of opening lies between the eyes and snout.

ii) Internal nares: A pair of the small opening is found in between the maxillary and vomer teeth on the buccal cavity.

iii) Nasal passage: space between external and internal nares.

iv) Buccopharynheal cavity: the space between the buccal cavity and pharynx.

v) Glottis: A slit-like opening.

vi) Bronchi: It is a pair of small tubes.

vii) Lungs: There is a pair of lungs that are thin-walled elastic sacs. They are present within the thoracic cavity on either side of the heart. Numerous small air sacs are present in the lungs called alveoli. The alveoli are very thin-walled and supplied by blood vessels. The air enters into the alveoli of the lungs through the external nares, internal nares, buccopharyngeal cavity, glottis, laryngotracheal camber, and bronchi. The alveoli increase the respiratory surface of the lungs.

Buccopharyngeal respiration: While the respiration is done through the buccopharyngeal cavity then it is called buccopharyngeal respiration. The buccal cavity consists of moist mucous membranes and richly supplied with blood capillaries. The lungs do not take part in this respiration. The air enters into the cavity through external nares and gaseous exchange takes place through the lining of the buccal cavity between blood and oxygen (air) present in the cavity by the diffusion process.


The northern red-legged frog, or rana aurora, is found along the western coast from british columbia to northern california. their typical breeding season lasts from january to march. the foothill yellow-legged frog, or rana boylii, is found along the western coast from northern oregon to central california. their typical breeding season lasts from april to july. what mechanism might keep rana aurora and rana boylii from mating? a. anatomical isolation b. temporal isolation c. geographic isolation d. behavioral isolation

The best and the correct answer among the choices provided by the question is the second choice.

Temporal isolation could be the mechanism that might keep Rana aurora and Rana boylii from mating.

I hope my answer has come to your help. Have a nice day ahead and may God bless you always!

The answer is temporary isolation

Temporary isolation (temporal)

Two species that mate at different times (days, seasons or years), the gametes will never mix.

The Process of Evolution In the 3.5 billion years since life appeared on earth, evolution has produced a very wide variety of living things. Millions of species evolve, while others cannot survive and become extinct. By studying the fossil record, scientists study evolution patterns.

According to Darwin, variations in the population are the "raw material" of evolution. Because mutations can produce variations, they are also considered evolutionary raw materials. Through natural selection, these variations are selected and leave organisms with properties that are appropriate to their environment. But how can evolution produce new species, even different kingdoms?

When Darwin proposed his theory, he was not aware of the existence of genes, DNA, and the mechanism of mutations that can cause variations. Darwin is also not familiar with genetics and molecular biology.

Speciation is the process of forming new species. According to his understanding, species are populations of living things that can reproduce each other and produce fertile offspring. However, it cannot reproduce with other groups. Based on this, it is seen that reproduction between one species with another species is impossible because there is isolation between species. Therefore, the key to species is reproductive isolation.

Prazigote Isolation is isolation that causes two species cannot mate or isolation that prevents fertilization. Based on the cause, isolation of the prazigote is divided into 5, as follows:

a. Temporal isolation b. Ecological isolation c. Isolate behavior d. Mechanical insulation e. Gamete isolation

definition of prazigote isolation

definition of temporary isulation

keywords: Temporary isulation, Speciation, Process of evolution, prazigote isolation


This venomous frog has killer spines on its head

When Carlos Jared picked up a little frog hiding in the scrublands of the Brazilian Caatinga, he didn&rsquot expect to be hurt.

And he didn&rsquot expect an intense pain radiating up his arm for the next five hours.

A single gram of the toxic secretion would kill more than 300,000 mice or 80 humans

&ldquoIt took me a long time to realise that the pain had a relationship with the careless collection of these animals,&rdquo he recalls.

Now he understands why. The little frog he collected is known as a Greening&rsquos frog (Corythomantis greening). Its head is covered in deadly spines, and Jared&rsquos research has revealed it is capable of injecting its victims with toxins more potent than those produced by Brazilian pitviper snakes.

Another frog that lives in the rainforest of Brazil, known as Bruno's casque-headed frog, has spines capable of producing venom 25 times more potent than the pitvipers. Calculations by Jared and his colleagues suggest that a single gram of the toxic secretion from a Bruno's casque-headed frog would be enough to kill more than 300,000 mice or about 80 humans.

Frogs have found ways to transmit their toxic skin secretion into the blood of a predator

Both species are the first known frogs to be venomous, scientists report in the journal Current Biology.

Most frogs and toads are poisonous. They sequester distasteful or poisonous compounds, and secrete them onto their skin to deter predators from gulping them down.

For an animal to be considered venomous, it needs to do more than sit around and secrete a bunch of chemicals. It needs to deliver the toxins into the bloodstream of the predator.

Both Greening&rsquos frog and Bruno's casque-headed frog (Aparasphenodon brunoi) do it using a series of killer spines on their head.

These bony spines grow out of the frogs&rsquo skulls, and are rooted in glands that secrete the toxic mucous.

&ldquoThe fact that frogs have found ways to transmit their toxic skin secretion into the blood stream of a would-be predator is definitely remarkable,&rdquo says Egon Heiss from the University of Vienna, Austria, who was not involved in the study.

Amphibian skin toxins are harsh and irritating if they contact the mucous membranes in a predator&rsquos mouth or eyes. But injecting them directly into an enemy&rsquos&rsquo blood stream becomes exponentially more potent, and potentially deadly, he says.

We were astonished at the level of toxicity of these frogs

The chemical composition of secretions from both the species were very similar.

When the frogs&rsquo secretions were analysed, the researchers found hyaluronidase, a protein usually found in venomous snakes. The protein is non-toxic, but aids in the spread of toxins. The presence of hyaluronidase was a clue to the researchers that these species could actually be venomous. This is the first report of the substance from amphibian skin secretions.

&ldquoWe do not know for sure, but because of the toxins we see, we strongly suspect the frogs produce their own toxin,&rdquo says Edmund Brodie, of Utah State University in the US, who led the research into the venomous frogs.

There may even be other more venomous frogs out there

The toxicity of secretions from Bruno's casque-headed frog is a stunning 25 times as much as the toxicity of the venom of the deadly Brazilian pitviper genus, Bothrops. Greening&rsquos frog is not as toxic as A. brunoi, but it is still twice as toxic as the pitviper on the other hand, it has better developed spines, and larger glands which produce more secretion.

&ldquoWe were astonished at the level of toxicity of these frogs. I think Carlos is lucky it was C. greeningi that spined him and not A. brunoi,&rdquo said Brodie. The researchers also think that there may be predators in the same environment that are resistant to these toxins.

&ldquoDuring all these years that I've lived with this animal in its environment, I&rsquove never seen any sign of predation or aggression by predators or other aggressors,&rdquo said Jared, who is based at the Butantan Institute in São Paulo, Brazil. A predator trying to swallow one of these frogs might be similar to trying to swallow a cacti, he says.

Further, Greening&rsquos frog&rsquos helmet shaped, cactus-like head also mimics the surrounding environment.

These animals have a curious behaviour: they live in holes on rocks or trees, and they close the hole with their body (the head), to maintain humidity inside and reduce water loss from the body.

&ldquoThe appearance of the top of the head is very similar to the barks of trees, making very difficult for a predator to see them. But in case the disguise is identified, it's almost impossible for the predator to grab the animal by the head trying to pull it out of the hole,&rdquo says Jared. The spiny helmet head thus has two uses. Bruno's casque-headed frog lives in holes among bromeliad stems, and also uses its head to keep cool and safe.

There may even be other more venomous frogs out there.

&ldquoIt is certainly interesting that these frogs have a delivery system for their toxins,&rdquo says Jerrold Meinwald, a professor of chemical biology at Cornell University in the US. He thinks we may yet discover other species that inject venom even better than the two frogs just discovered.


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