Information

Why isn't direct diagnosis of infectious disease through microscopes a common thing?

Why isn't direct diagnosis of infectious disease through microscopes a common thing?


We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

I'm not sure if I am being accurate about this but from what I know about diagnostics (watching House MD etc), if a doctor has a suspicion of a pathogenic infection then he/she usually prescribes corresponding medication without doing some kind of a confirmatory test. But isn't it possible to just have a look at the blood sample under a microscope and then confirm it? I guess it can't be done for viruses because they need an electron microscope to resolve them apart but I guess normal bacterias can be identified using more commonly available microscopes.


The problem with this is that A) the infection may be local, and very few if any bacterial cells may be in circulation, and B) even if the infection is systemic, there could be as few as a couple of bacterium per million red and white blood cells, making visual confirmation impossible. More often, if the attending physician feels the need for a direct ID in order to prescribe the correct medication, a culture is taken from the site of infection or blood is drawn, and then subjected to one of any number of different automated ID systems and/or culture conditions to identify the particular type of bacteria present. This can be as simple as Gram staining to identify Gram positive vs. Gram negative bacteria (different types of antibiotics work on the two classes) all the way to a full identification (genus, species, strain) based on molecular sequencing, typically of ribosomal RNA.


Dark-field Microscopy: Principle and Uses

Dark-field microscopy is a technique that can be used for the observation of living, unstained cells and microorganisms. In this microscopy, the specimen is brightly illuminated while the background is dark. It is one type of light microscope, others being bright-field, phase-contrast, differential interface contrast, and fluorescence. Components of Bright field microscope and difference in illumination with darkfield microscope.
(Image source: Created with BioRender.com)

Principle

Dark-field microscopy uses a light microscope with an extra opaque disc underneath the condenser lens, or a special condenser having a central blacked-out area, due to which the light coming from the source cannot directly enter into the objective.

Principle of Dark-Field Microscopy
(Image courtesy: Olivier Haeberlé)

The path of the light is directed in such a way that it can pass through the outer edge of the condenser at a wide-angle and strike the sample at an oblique angle. Only the light scattered by the sample reaches the objective lens for visualization. All other light that passes through the specimen will miss the objective, thus the specimen is brightly illuminated on a dark background.

Uses of Dark-Field Microscopy

  • Visualization of spirochetes such as Treponema pallidum (syphilis), Borrelia burgdorferi (lyme borreliosis) and Leptospira interrogans (leptospirosis) in clinical samples.

Borrelia in dark field microscopy
(Image courtesy S Bhimji)

Spirochetes can not be seen by light microscopy because of their thin dimensions.


CHEMTRAILS AND MORGELLONS – IT’S WORSE THAN YOU THOUGHT!

This article was edited by Bridget Conroy and Mike Caraway.
More of
Blue’s photos can be seen in the “ Gallery “ This link will take you to Arizona Skywatch go to their gallery for many more photos of chemtrails and Morgellons specimens.


Reproduction of this work is encouraged, for non-profit, educational purposes only.

Reproduced by MorgellonsExposed.com

This research was initiated in an attempt to explain physical and neurological symptoms observed by me for quite some time and in just about everyone, including myself. It’s been like a splinter in my mind .

I’ve observed in recent years that co-workers, those I’ve attempted to train especially, all seem to be losing their short term memory. They’ll set a coffee cup down and forget its whereabouts 10 sec later, they’ll work on stuff for the field and leave the office without it. 10 years ago trainees could be given three or four tasks at one time and remember them all, now they can only handle one at a time at best, very spooky. Children in particular, those who should have a strong memory, seem affected also. Store clerks and others seem to suffer from these same neurological symptoms as well.

As for me, my nose runs a lot, my ears ring now constantly and my vision in one eye has become a little blurry, my joints ache, etc. It is these observations and my continual observations of the sky that led me on this quest to see if there could be a connection.

I’ve always had to watch the weather to protect the crews and equipment and complete the task at hand. I’ve been actively photographing the aerosol spraying above the White mountains. (6500 ft elev.) of Ariz. since 2005 and created an entire photo blog of one year’s observations at least 50 hrs a week that commenced in Dec 2005. My conclusion was that the entire upper troposphere contains what can only be described as synthetic clouds that have been introduced by aircraft. I’ve not just photographed the spraying but the morphing of this substance into clouds of a fibrous nature and other bizarre cloud formations not found in early/ANY cloud textbooks. See: “Strange Days Strange Skies”

In the last year however I’ve observed and photographed an extraordinary sheen around the sun, which indicates a saturation level has been achieved, and the spraying now is infrequent by comparison I.E. once or twice a week (at best). This sheen can also be seen around stadium lights on TV. I’ve recently noticed that when the sky is an azure blue, like it should be, the planes will not be long off to seal the hole I guess. I’ve been trying to figure out how the clouds could appear so fibrous at times, and understand now this process is likely to be a function of nano-tech polymer’s self assembly technique (see clouds connecting in the Lakeside aerosol photo’s). Gases could not striate like this, and what goes up, well you know, Newton was right.


Just using a strong flashlight pointed upward at night and looking into the focused beam of light prove that we are living in a virtual bath of what research by others suggests is an exotic form of barium, aluminum and God knows what else, but I cannot afford complete testing myself (see “carnicom.com”barium test confirmed).

This stuff has become so saturated in our atmosphere, at least here in the White Mountains that quite often sunlight can be seen streaking to the ground through it when cloudy, much like when sunlight streaks in through one’s window blinds when cooking smoke or other smoke is present inside. This stuff has reduced our sunlight compared to two years ago, as I set a light meter then and it now measures a decrease in light of about half. This is also evidenced by my camera ,whose flash operates now in the morning way more than it use to, and at times lights at the park that are on photo sensitive switches (and cars) turn on during the day or turn on way before dusk, very concerning.

The alkalizing of water and any water based air breathing organism allows for increased storage and even the creation of dc current, especially when mixed with other components / chemicals. I proved this in myself with only a pretty good digital volt meter. I measure my voltage constantly by just wetting my fingers and squeezing the probes.

I started looking at the collected water with an old microscope in early April by drying about 30 drops on a microscope slide and saw immediately what appeared to be what I’d seen coming from Morgellons patients on the web. I really had thought the story was a hoax quite frankly, but know now otherwise. I started to look at all my samples and found dozens of these fibers. Confirmation of what these fibers were came on April 18 2007, when a “Goldenhead” nano sensor was isolated. This confirmation was quite the shock cause I knew then all of us in the White Mountains at least were all being infected with this bizarre nano affliction, infestation, infection.

Why the voltage thing is so important: I’ve observed in my jars that were electrolyzed that the growth of what I’ve learned are called “synthetic model organisms” (or artificial life forms) is greatly enhanced and increased. The fibers they call Morgellons increase in about 6 mo. to almost visible with the naked eye or magnifying glass. One such clump of fibers has gone from a dozen microscopic fibers to about a hundred or so and can easily be extracted by tweezers. Two of the translucent silicone nano tube fibers are clearly evenly segmented and one strand appears to have a DNA strand twisting through its core. How this is possible I don’t know but it’s neither a delusion nor illusion as I still have and observe them frequently.

Since I can observe that we live now in an energized electrical bath provided by the “miracle grow” stuff (metal particulates) added with the ever increasing microwave towers, cell phone towers, radio towers, satellite transmissions, electric lines, wi-fi systems etc., couple that with the ever pervasive presence of plastic water pipes, plastic plants, plastic clouds, food wrapping, car interiors, plastic clothing, plastic x-mas tree’s etc., there would appear plenty of plastic components with which to work, if this is possible. Plastic is in a constant state of degradation and hence vaporization. One plausible explanation of how the flat ribbon like fibers seem to grow even on glass is that these synthetic model organisms can assemble plastic components from the air, water or wherever present and use dc current as part of their assembly technique, or they are feeding off the silicone in the glass or both. It’s been proven that plants extract most of their mineral content from the air not from the soil as once was believed. Nano-tech is designed to mimic the things that man has discovered about how nature works, assembles itself etc.

This also would explain how these tiny fibers have worked their way from the inside of our/my body to the outside of the skin unnoticed by our immune system. We have lived, breathed and drank plastic residues now for so long, it’s become part of our body’s composition. Since the skin constantly sheds from the inside outward, and the skin completely regenerates itself every seven years, my guess is that it took about ten years to surface as photographed. Approx. when all the aerosol programs or so called chemtrails started.


I started looking at dried droplets of this collected water before electrolysis and that’s when all the fun began. I started to see what I saw on the net, and was called Morgellons fibers. I saw this story about people who have fibers growing out of their skin but initially thought it was an internet hoax. It was said these fibers could grow on their own and created a myriad of symptoms from skin lesions to brain fog and memory loss.“rense.com” has interviews with Morgellons patients and some doctors who are treating them)


My first reaction was to flee the area, but that was economically impossible, and decided to continue studying the problem. I set up another testing station 300 miles away which yielded the same results. By now as if all this wasn’t enough, now there were other things growing in the water. The first one I noticed was a small tapeworm looking thing I interestingly called Fred. It started as a pinhead size tan speck in the bottom of my jar. This thing assembled itself quite quickly in about two weeks from about the size of a pin head to its current size about 1 1/4 in long.

I began spending hours every night and every weekend on the microscope looking at these bizarre growths. No visible biology as we know it whatsoever. In the same jar Fred grew, a few dozen morgellons fibers had clumped together and at one time Fred got tangled in them pretty good. Much to my amazement Fred slowly freed himself from this mess which I watched for about 3-5 days. The fibers accommodating the effort by moving out of the way. To this day you can’t get them to tangle up. I spent the entire month of May studying this bizarre growth, the fibers and doing other tests. I then decided to test north 1100 miles, in Idaho.

/>The opportunity to quit my job came up and an offer of a substantial increase in pay was refused. I had a lot of respect for this friend as we had worked well together in the past. I felt I owed him an explanation as to why I was going to turn him down and move so I showed him the extent of my research. I showed him the extent of the chemical poisoning we were living in and the consistency of that poisoning from week to week (a dozen jars at least). I had shown the other office the chemical poisoning also, but not the biological stuff. I showed him my entire collection of weekly tests and told him of the morgellons fibers I’d found in the water. I showed him Fred, the thing that grew along with a smaller one of the same. I told him I could prove without any shadow of a reasonable doubt that we are currently under not just chemical attack but also biological (synthetic). I wouldn’t have told anyone this if I couldn’t prove it ad nauseum. His reaction like most was quite mild but had never heard of Morgellons and knew not of what this would mean in his future. He did the ostrich thing like everyone (another observed neurological symptom), if you don’t recognize a problem, it must not exist. I believe if he had listened to the Rense audio files, his reaction would’ve been different.

/>I soon left for Idaho and the first three days there the visibility was good, and a small sheen around the sun meant I might have found a safer haven for my family to move. By the third day however a large spraying operation could be seen to the east and I started looking in spider webs and on the oozing sap on trees and on the new sap on my car. The conclusion: these fibers are everywhere. The anxiety, fear and terror returned that I had come to quell during the month of May looking at all this. My hopes for the future destroyed and the realization that everyone from here to Idaho has been infected with this heinous man made creation (type morgellons into “you tube”) has become a reality. This particular town’s water supply is drawn from the lake, which can only mean they are getting a double dose, not just their air but their water too.

I returned from Idaho and decided to continue my research, which has only gotten more bizarre, if that’s possible. I discovered another thing growing, a square pliable (perhaps protein) crystal of some kind about 1/4 in square was growing. It’s continued to get thicker not expand as one would expect and thickens slowly to this day.

I made a wood frame 13吉 in and took ultra clear packing tape and covered it completely stretching it across the opening. I laid it sticky side skyward and left it outside overnight. In the morning I let it dry in a closed area then placed a 12合 piece of thin glass on the tape to seal in my overnight collection of fallout from the sky. I looked from the glass side through to the tape with a cheap $10 60x-100x microscope from radio shack, (good for looking at your skin too) and there they were, confirming that’s one provable source for these fibers to have come. Spider webs have the same effect.


At any rate I set up another testing station and decided to run this one for two weeks and not electrolyze the water. This has yielded new synthetic model organisms different from the rest. It (3d morg) started off looking like a Fred thing but had an odd looking black seed-like thing with odd small spikes sticking out. It was about the size of 1/20 pin head and like the Fred things was surrounded with the tan coloring stuff of Fred.

It popped I guess and created a bag of sorts. The bag was comprised of hundreds of fibers that looked a little different than the ribbon-like morgellons fibers though many of those were present. At this point I realized I needed cameras as no one would believe any of this

already. Hell I still can’t believe most of this. I bought two microscopes and started to photograph all this stuff and more.

I have seen evidence of this replicating technology myself in spider webs, (on skin and in hair also) finding clear silicone nanotubes mimicking plant structures and other things but at a much smaller scale. If as claimed this thing can come in contact with a bio form and replicate parts of it’s RNA/DNA (by transcription and Quorum sensing), and then attempt assembly with available components, silicone being the most abundant, isolation for study will be almost impossible. Fibers living on glass suggest this thing can suck silicone out of glass to self assemble, look closely at the attachment points of these fibers on glass.

It remains my great concern that components of viruses or the complete virus itself may be also replicated and remains an undetected / undisclosed aspect of this technology. I offer my observations with the assurance of duplicability. I only record what I can duplicate first. I offer this work with extreme urgency believing time maybe short. The growth of mold structures in my bugers ( and most likely yours) is a real real concern, the most probable suspect is a weaponized fusarium fungus.

It remains an idea that this thing may only be defeated with resonant frequencies, tuned to destroy the Quorum sensing capacity of this technology, rife technology. It remains an observation that perhaps light wave tech. might influence these things, since auto-fluorescence was achieved and is in my opinion evidence of the frequencies at which these fibers vibrate. It remains a concern that oxygen may be in real short supply, atmospherically.

It remains logical to assume microscopic fibers that collect / conduct electrical current are growing in our brains and slowly shorting out our neurons IE memory, or Alzheimer’s. Denying conductivity to these creatures is perhaps the key though seemingly impossible.

Another thought on insect vectoring is that this technology can reside in the fluids of insects, when bitten by them the technology transfers with the DNA/RNA from the insect then attempts reconstruction, perhaps of the venom, within the human host. This would explain the DNA of insects and plants that have been isolated in infected humans.

A new and quite disturbing observation / possibility about our current situation is as follows: According to testimony given by those infected, a hive mentality has been observed by those afflicted. This suggests A.I. or “artificial intelligence”, but to what extent is unknown.

Also the lower level cloud structures which appear now for the most part disassemble now far more frequently than two years ago. Originally my chemtrail photograph project started after observing a rather large cloud completely disassemble into a powder of sorts and blow visibly away on the breeze in minutes and observed by my co-worker as well.

The recent article of an air grab study in Phoenix titled “chemtrails shocking Phoenix air quality study” proves or vindicates my work and discoveries. Aluminum measured at 6400x above the toxic limit, along with Manganese at 5820x, Iron at 28000x, Barium at 278x, etc.

It’s the beginning of the monsoon season here and I’m quite certain judging now at how often sunlight can be seen streaking to the ground like sunlight through a window in a smoke filled room, that living here is much worse than in Phoenix in that all the pollution from below rises up here to form rain clouds. Clouds now disassemble not evaporate with such frequency that I no longer photograph them, and have stopped almost altogether my chemtrail photography as it no longer matters.

Clearly we continue to be suffocated slowly by metal particulates.

The purest form of science is observation and after hundreds of hours of observations I can say without hesitation: “Houston we have a problem !!”.

In a nutshell the way I see part of our dilemma, many of these synthetic clouds are nano tech polymers pre-programmed with certain geometric assembly functions to look like real clouds. They can retain this programming down to the nano-tech level as they degrade. Their programming can be diverse in nature, IE assembly, association, self-replication, all three or more, etc. This implies undeniable intelligence and or pre-programming or control of some kind. On top of the metal particulates removed by me in our air, photographed in my blood and electrolyzed from my urine, we have plastic components (photo degrading at this very moment and present everywhere) of microscopic size, capable of geometric pattern regeneration and replicative / self survival behavior. The Morgellons syndrome could be more correctly labeled “Synthetic Cloud Infection Syndrome”.

/>I have been verifying Cliff Carnicom’s “carnicom.com” work for years and his blood observations (6 communications 03-07-08) is a mustread now. All blood looked at so far has anomalies in it. Even my dogs’. The first time I looked at my blood it took me weeks to get over it and look again. It’s that bad. Blood should contain not much more than red and white blood cells. Knowing now what’s in the chemtrails makes me cringe when I see them spraying.
This is nothing less than state sanctioned / sponsored terrorism / mass homicide. T />hough the government has reserved the legal right to test stuff on us (usc 1520a) the states have a legal / moral / ethical obligation to protect us, I guess unless they’ve been promised more tax dollars, protection, and or the antidote.

I had a friend recently diagnosed with what was described as a rare form of blood cancer. Looking at my blood I can’t help but wonder if that was really the true or rare cause. All people that look at blood for a living must know what is really going on .

Skin photos: />
The skin photos clearly show a metallic sheen has built up in our skins, along with faint red splotches. This metallic sheen is preventing close observations of the extent of the translucent fiber infestation which most are probably not fine hair as we know and understand them. Pinhead size skin eruptions which develop quite quickly then take weeks to heal have been found and photographed. These skin conditions have been observed / photographed on others as well.

The glue stick stuff:

/>I discovered quite by accident that a cheap hot melt glue stick gun, is good for sealing microscope slides as it preserves the specimen and is like a lint brush for Morgellons fibers. Spread some on a slide, let cool and then rub all over your forearm. The tiny fibers will stick to this glue stuff and if you don’t believe that’s Morgellons fibers wait a few months and look at it again. Not only do they stick to it but will grow quite rapidly, the red ones in particular. Oddly enough about 20% />of the time the glue stick stuff itself on the slide will grow into bizarre strands as well. I noticed balls of glue stick that would appear, and removed them only to find them again in the same spot. It remains an observation that the slides which have squished bugers in them are the primary slides on or in which the glue stick grows. Sometimes it grows quickly sometimes in months. My bugers may somehow be the cause. God save us.

Over the past few months a new infection appears to be culturing in our noses. Field workers are all getting this odd nose tickle (many with mustaches). A strange white thin stringy buger is the cause I believe and have placed a dozen or so on slides and looked at the growth over time. Oddly enough when small they look like fly maggots but can get quite long. What’s been observed is as bizarre as the rest of this story. Geometric crystal growths, snowflake designs, Morgellons fiber growth, mold looking fibril growth with sporulations.

To duplicate this experiment after a shower blow nose into a colored wash cloth or plastic baggie and look for small white stringy bugers that don’t want to separate, but they will if pulled apart. Water makes them expand a lot. Place inside and on the side of a clean closed jar with just a tiny bit of moisture in the jar and let sit for 48 hrs. Remove and dunk in some distilled water and place on a microscope slide. Gently squeeze the cover plate and seal with gluestick gun, leaving just enough air underneath for continued growth and observe. Nine months later more glue stick stranding has been seen. This discovery of what appears to be mold culturing in our noses is a great concern as many types of mold are neurotoxic to the brain. In small but consistent doses damage may go unnoticed until it’s too late, but this may already be true. This would however explain a number of neurological symptoms described by Morgellons patients. Just digging out a nice dry buger and soak in distilled water for about 5 min will give about the same results and there’s always morg fibers in them. I don’t have access to scientific grade distilled water however.

/>Anyone who needs to prove any of this to themselves needs only a half decent microscope at least 40x-100x and spider webs (or their own bugers or blood). Use a microscope slide and ultra clear packing tape to seal the web to your slide. The web should be old and dirty to some extent but needn’t be real dirty. I have discovered more verifiable completed nano tech things in spider webs than anywhere else. Segmented silicone nano tubes and nano feathers (see Cliff Carnicom’s carnicom.com photos and work), always Morgellons fibers etc.

/>The starfish looking things of multiple leg design remain a current fascination. In the center of almost all these creatures there is a controlling fibrous substance / structure which appears to control and or direct growth. This creature / thing has no discernable biology as we know it and appears made of perhaps silicone only. (My instincts believe these are most likely neuron replacements / implants for our brains, type in nanobots and neuron interface into you tube, they’ve been considered if not constructed). />They have been found in almost all exterior webs but not inside as of late (5 outside 2 inside) probably because the outside webs are years older than inside one’s.


It’s imperative that those concerned make their own observations and don’t believe my work, get off your duff and verify it yourselves. (My air collector can be made for about $35) For the most part I no longer photograph morgellons fibers in spider webs, they are far too frequent and no longer a surprise. Every spider web so far has yielded photos.


Non-electrolysis synthetic model organism:

/>In the month of May I went fishing at Hawley lake on the reservation. They have poison ivy there which I always watch out for. I had gone in the water to retrieve a lure about up to my knee cap. A few days later I got what I was sure was poison ivy on my calves, though I had seen none where I was fishing, it lasted however for about a month, when usually it goes away in a week. When scratching it, it bled easily and seems somewhat similar to the description given by Cliff Mickelson. It’s speculated that since my electrical bio field is so strong that possibly when I was in the water these nano things were drawn to me like a magnet.

/>During all this I decided to try and detox from these metals and did the ionic foot detox bath which was quite the experience. I thought it first a parlor trick until I electrolyzed the stuff and looked with a microscope at the water after treatment I noticed immediately I could smell and taste again much better, but now the air left a metallic taste in my mouth which took about 3 weeks to go away, presumably because I was re-acclimating to the air. I then tried acupuncture and chlorella detox but had to stop as I could taste my fillings thanks to the mercury in them.

I took a drop of “miracle grow” (metals from the air), let it dry, and put a drop of chlorella on it. To my amazement the chlorella washed violently over the “miracle grow” then stopped. The chlorella either won or lost I don’t know which. I tried a drop on some morg fibers and nothing happened, silence. Very odd. My conclusion: detox works if you can get away from the toxic stuff but may be detrimental otherwise.

Most of these observations were made outside a small town (approx pop. 10,000), about 6 miles initially. Since I have lived here we have a large willow tree about 15 feet tall and 10 feet wide. When it blooms thousands of honey bees would swarm it for weeks. The din from the bees could be heard inside. This year 2007 maybe 200 to 300 bees came to feed. When I first moved here in 2002, bats would patrol my porch at night and hummingbirds by the dozens would feed off this porch. Now there’s no bats, few bugs and a few humming birds (2007). Also we would get small fly-like insects growing on the moisture on the windows. In 2006 almost no bugs grew on our windows that summer and few flies found their way inside, though we have no screen doors.

Summary —

“To sin by silence makes cowards of all men”

/>In summary you want to know why our, birds, bees, frogs, and now bats (there are few bugs left) are dying, (nary an apple found on this mountain this year, and my return trip from Idaho almost no huckleberries had grown).It’s undeniable that we and all life forms are under deliberate chemical and biological nano attack, DOE and DOD are most likely involved, your tax dollars at work (to kill you with soft-kill, high profit pharmaceutical weapons). That the chemicals removed by me, found in our air / blood, water and urine is providing an enriched environment for the accelerated growth of these synthetic model organisms. This chemical is increasing body and environmental electrical capacities, providing the dc current for these synthetic organisms to self-assemble. The diverse nature of the organisms observed may be a function of the “silentsuperbug.com” but Morgellons fibers are in my opinion different things. The body is providing the electrical current for these things to self-assemble, as the body is electrical first and chemical second. Every living thing on the planet is currently being colonized by these artificial life forms, to what end is not known. This brings to mind the movie the “Matrix” and I wonder if and/or how they knew.

A new source for morg fibers was found in an old paper wick inside our humidifier. Its about 6-8 mo old and has not been used since the summer. It’s loaded with them and other things. The truth remains, every single time I look at new stuff it gets worse and worse.

In 2004 I believe, three weeks before Xmas a very spooky thing happened. An unusual chemical smell was in the air, that was noticed by others as well, that smelled like a pesticide. One morning I woke up and couldn’t remember the day, what time I was to go to work, etc. I panicked a little but drove to work anyway kind of stunned. I was afraid I had a stroke. At 6:00 am on the way to work there were not one but three major accidents on the main road. Highly unusual that early, rarely seen three accidents in a month. For the next month everyone in the office, store clerks, etc. seemed to have the same thing and jokingly the term early-onset Alzheimer’s was thrown around by others, I found it not funny however, I was aware something had happened. I slowly regained much of my memory but it felt like I had to fight for it back. I mentioned this observation to a co-worker and he told me his wife, an accountant for years, said she all of a sudden was having trouble with normal math during that same period and said he too had forgotten things more than usual. During X-mas, store clerks would take money and forget immediately what it was for, or stumbled trying to count change continually. I was, still am, quite concerned. It took about 3 mo. to recover and about 3 months later a Doctor named Patricia Doyle called the Rense program with the same exact story (type in amnesiacs). She said her small town back east was experiencing this memory dysfunction after heavy spraying, and she apologized for having to read notes she had made for the program, as she too was having short term memory problems.

About three years ago I was showing my aerosol spraying photos and some others I had gleaned from the net to the owner of a video store where we rented videos. A man at the counter became interested and looked at my photos. He immediately recognized some of the aircraft in the photos as C-130 cargo planes. He seemed concerned and vowed to investigate, then left. The owner told me that was her brother and if anyone could find out, he could as he was retired military intelligence. About four months later I asked if he’d found out anything, and this was the story she recounted. He said indeed the spraying was quite toxic and he had been present at a confrontation by I believe the Navaho nation and the EPA The EPA contended everything was ok until the Navahos presented their evidence to the contrary which was quite compelling. The EPA then closed up its books and left without another word. I asked her to have him call me with more details but two weeks later she closed up shop and left too. I’ve not been able to verify this story since.

/>Another recent revelation came from the article: Are microwaves killing our insects, birds ,frogs and us? The metal particulates which separated in my blood are photographically identical to the metal found in all air samples. This can only mean our cerebral fluids contain these particulates. Ever put metal in a microwave? What do you think happens when you stick a .5 watt microwave cell phone next to your 70% water 30% cholesterol brain with about 2-4% of some type of exotic metal flowing through it, micro-sparks would be a good guess. The article stated a 200 meter (approx. 600 ft) range around the base transmitters to be the most detrimental to any life form. How close to the road are most of our microwave antennae and why are they in our high school yard ?? I’ve read reports that at full power these transmitters can cook all life within 1/4 mile. They could turn them on full blast and by the time you realized driving through the field that something was wrong you’d be dying shortly, like within minutes of brain cooking !!

The disappearance of the bee’s, bugs, bats, birds etc. correspond with the installation of all the microwave antennae on this mountain.

/>This is why apathy doesn’t work and when we saw the spraying, (or were exposed to terrible injustices, the Kennedys, Vietnam, Waco, 911 etc.) we should have mobilized quickly to stop it. “To sin by silence makes cowards of all men”. It’s now my belief that Morgellons is what Alzheimer’s patients have and can likely be proven with post mortem brain slices perhaps from dogs, and the miracle grow stuff in our air is slowly but continually being electrolyzed in our brains and bodies perhaps in specific or targeted areas. It remains possible that we may all be incapable to respond to any threat, though that’s no excuse. Our pineal gland (the fight or flight receptor in our brain) has been plaqued over or destroyed is my guess and fluoride (see university of Texas studies) has likely helped do that. One year of sodium fluoride destroys this gland almost forever. It’s imperative that you reproduce any of these observations, should you care or dare to see how bad the air really is, but few if any seem to give a shit about anything anymore, another neurological observation of real real concern.

My true observations of people now believes the gov’t could start shooting people in broad daylight and people would just go about their business without intervention or condemnation. Oh wait it already happened at Waco (watch “rules of engagement, the true story of Waco!) and the current and past wars.

To understand what our future holds and for other ideas on this it’s highly recommended that all the morgellons interviews on “rense.com” are listened to backwards (14-7 will give the best overview).

I regret now having discovered all this, as I was much happier (though concerned/confused about all my neurological observations above) not knowing all this stuff, as it has completely disrupted my life, but it’s my hope that maybe a cure will be found (by accident maybe) by perhaps someone who gets this.

Reproduction of this work is encouraged, for non-profit, educational purposes only. It’s not for everyone but can be shown to others who might care, if you can find any. Photos may appear on web sites, credits to “Blue“, but may not be sold without my written permission. If you have received this, I’m sorry and may God bless you. Problems cannot be solved unless one knows they exist. Be cautious to whom you tell, don’t upload on your hard drive or transmit electronically or be on a computer hooked to the net. or near wi-fi systems. I recommend you review the work done by Cliff Carnicom.com (or type in aerosol crimes) and in the work by others.

It would appear man has out-smarted himself, or this is the wrath we deserve for our apathy, or this is the start of the promised 80% population reduction recommended in U.N. documents with a twist. The twist is they’ll mine us to pay for medical stuff as we die anyway. Make no mistake, the elites probably have the cure. This would however explain why so many highly trained microbiologists and others have been murdered (300+) over the past 5+ years, many satanically. If anything, this and all my other projects have taught me that man as a species has had all their self-survival instincts removed, as I’ve been pointing to these observations of our sky (as have millions of others) for years (late 90’s) only to be laughed at by those who worked inside mostly. It’s no joke any more, sadly though there’s always the chance I could be wrong, at this point maybe 2%, though I pray I am every day. Oddly enough “the more truth one seeks, the more truth one’s sent”, or at least that’s my story.

We are under attack from all directions.

How many lab rats developed severe organ damage eating GM potatoes? All of them (still gets FDA approval, you’ll eat some tonight probably)

How many days did it take to notice changes in the rats? 10

How many days to recover? 140

How many days can a rat survive on just water? 7

How many eating some common puffed breakfast cereals and water? 7

How many lab monkeys died eating aspartame (diet sugar)? All of them (its now in over 8,000 foods, click “DORway” for further info.

How many IQ points will sodium fluoride (toothpaste fluoride) remove over time? 6 to 10 at least (read the back, its poison, call them)

What’s the average IQ loss of vaccinated participants in the U.S.? 10-16 at least.

What was the autism rate in 1940? 1-400,000

What’s it now? 1-164 (soon projected at 1-94)

How many Amish and Pennsylvania Dutch un-vaccinated children have autism, in one clinic after 2,200+ children? Only 4,and they are among the only group of 12 kids who got all their vaccinations (read educate before you vaccinate).

Has the EPA granted license to test pesticides on orphans? Yes.

How many state government have responded with testing to thousands of requests from concerned citizens about chemtrails? None.

How many de-classified US documents of experiments on populations with chemical and/or bio. weapons are there? +20,000. (watch documentary “endgame”)

How many people were fired for failing to defend the US on 9-11? None.

How many healthy children were irradiated, in many cases to death, but parents were told it’s an experimental ring worm treatment? +10,000. Type in ringworm children.

In 1950 what rating was given to our education system? 1st place What’s it now? Near bottom of the industrial nations.

Why? See all the above. Read “The Deliberate Dumbing Down of America” Now a free E-Book.

How many pigs (one of the most acute smell sensory animals) would eat GM corn when given a choice? None, almost to the point of starvation.

How many now after reviewing all the evidence above believe that global warming (and poisoning) is man made, well it is, and they are called pilots (your tax dollars again at work). What’s their solution? A global tax on us. Let’s summarize, they spray the stuff, deny there’s a problem, energize it which heats it, they blame it on us and our activity and tell us we need to give them more money to combat the problem they are continuing to create. Makes about as much sense as the war on terror while the borders remain wide open. These examples are what Orwell coined as “doublethink”, the ability to hold two contrary notions in one’s head and believe them both.

Are you starting to get the picture yet or do you need more proof? If you aren’t disturbed by anything above there is something seriously wrong with or perhaps controlling you.

Just because these heinous acts are/were committed against others doesn’t obviate your concern and/or intervention. They are crimes against all God’s wondrous creatures in general.

Everyone one of us and every living thing is living now in a state of sanctioned, deliberate, heavy metal intoxication / poisoning of differing degrees and stages, as inside air and outside air are different, as these positively charged metal particles are drawn to the ground first. Those of us who work outside will bear the brunt of this first, and those who work with or around transmitters will show advanced symptoms. But it’s still inside too. I’ve been to houses which have ventilation hoods and where the people don’t smoke, yet even in those houses sunlight can be seen streaking in through the blinds and is written off as “just dust particles”. I’ll say !

If you listened to the Rense audios, you’ll understand the psychological degradations associated with this infection, and the heavy metal intoxication / poisoning will make it much worse. Negative traits are amplified and many law enforcement personnel who enjoy domination over others will worsen, and they are likely to become more brutal. This is already evidenced on you tube videos of police brutality, and reported treatment of the local citizenry.

By now you’re probably thinking I’ll just drink more water and flush this metal stuff out, which would normally really help, except try this, electrolyze a glass of your tap water and remember this process will only remove the metals (ionic salts) in your tap water All metal is poisonous, heavy or not, in high doses and outside evolutionary time parameters. MMM doesn’t that look good, but the water company says it’s ok to drink my guess is they’re lying, too.

How could we be so blind…………… see all the above, it’s been by design.

How could God (or just your sense of “fair play”) forgive us for allowing such blatant travesty as above, he can’t , he won’t. You wouldn’t .

Evil spreads when good people do nothing.

All species and life forms are under deliberate, multiple attack. It’s not like a dog barking or rattle snake near you, that your instincts know to react to, and understand your instincts aren’t your own anymore, they’ve been co-opted, it’s an awareness of your surroundings, LOOK UP, what goes up must come down. Does that look like a normal contrail or cloud, if not you’re probably breathing that. Maybe you should be concerned. No those aren’t clouds they’re chemicals (type in strange days strange sky’s, or see my photos). Think again for your survival and most importantly others’. Spend a few hours proving anything you’ve been told to believe. You’ll likely find them to be all lies. The state and feds have all said those are normal contrails and not to worry, see my photos, are those clouds or chemicals? If they look like chemicals, they probably are, are you worried yet?? Do you still believe them? If so you’re in trouble as we all are.


Anyone who has studied “smart dust”, a military 3D modeling satellite system, knows that for years they been dumping nano-tech stuff on us and everyone else.

What can be done you ask, anything? Waiting for the CDC to help is moot, they’re in the pocket of the insurance industry. Play with this stuff, (wear gloves you’ll feel better) find something it reacts to, sulfur, garlic, baking soda, glue, static electricity, kerosene, ammonia, chaparral extract, etc. I’m in this now 900+ hours and $1,000 in equip. because I love all God’s creature’s and understand it’s my duty to defend them at my own expense, not because it’s what God commands, because it’s the right thing to do.


How Long Does Support Last?

NIAID awards T32s for five years, with the chance to renew. We make awards annually, with further support contingent on performance and funding availability.

Trainee appointments are usually in one-year increments new appointments must be at least nine months except when we've approved a short-term training position. A trainee can remain in a program for a maximum of five years for predoctoral trainees three years for postdoctoral trainees.

For more details, see the trainee appointments section of T32 and T35 Training Grants—Key Administrative Information.

T35s may be awarded for periods up to five years and are renewable. Trainees must pursue research training for two to three months on a full-time basis, devoting at least 40 hours per week to the program.


What Happens After the Biopsy?

After the tissue is collected and preserved, it's delivered to a pathologist. Pathologists are doctors who specialize in diagnosing conditions based on tissue samples and other tests. (In some cases, the doctor collecting the sample can diagnose the condition.)

Continued

A pathologist examines the biopsy tissue under a microscope. By noting the tissue cells' type, shape, and internal activity, in most cases a pathologist can diagnose the problem.

The time it takes to get results from a biopsy can vary. During a surgery, a pathologist may read a biopsy and report back to a surgeon in a few minutes. Final, highly accurate conclusions on biopsies often take a week or longer. You will probably follow up with your regular doctor to discuss the biopsy results.

Sources

National Cancer Institute: "Dictionary of Cancer Terms."

Zuber, T. American Family Physician, March 15, 2002.

WebMD Medical Reference: "Breast Biopsy."

National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse: "Kidney Biopsy."


Physical Examination

Down syndrome is usually quite evident as soon as a baby with the disorder is born, as many of its distinctive physical characteristics are present at birth. These include:

  • A round face with a flat profile and small facial features (nose, mouth, ears, and eyes)
  • Protruding tongue
  • Almond-shaped upturned eyes with epicanthus folds
  • White flecks in the colored part of the eyes (Brushfield spots)
  • A short neck and a small head that's somewhat flat in the back (brachycephaly)
  • A single crease across the palm of each hand (normally there are two), short stubby fingers, and a pinky finger curves inward—a condition called clinodactyly
  • Small feet with a larger than normal space between the big and second toes
  • Hypotonia, or low muscle tone, which causes the newborn to appear “floppy” due to a condition called hypotonia.

These characteristics are red flags that a newly born baby has Down syndrome. To confirm the diagnosis, a blood sample will be taken and used to create a karyotype.


Current and Emerging Technologies for the Diagnosis of Microbial Infections

Hannes Pouseele , Philip Supply , in Methods in Microbiology , 2015

Abstract

Efficient molecular-guided epidemiological control of tuberculosis is especially important, because of the complex epidemiology, the insidious transmission and the specific biological features of its etiologic agent Mycobacterium tuberculosis . The most used typing system for epidemiological tracing of the pathogen is MIRU-VNTR typing, which has been internationally standardised under two formats (standard 24-locus based and 4 hypervariable locus based), optionally combined with spoligotyping. This generalised use has been facilitated by the portable numerical genotypes that are generated, the precisely calibrated molecular cluster definition and the option to use published protocols or ready-to-go kits directly compatible with multifunctional web-based databases. However, such classical typing systems can inherently not capture all possible micro-variation that can occur in the genome. Near complete capture of the available genetic information is increasingly performed by whole-genome sequencing (WGS). Such approaches take advantage of the rapid advances and increasing affordability of next-generation sequencing technologies, including benchtop platforms meeting the needs of routine clinical microbiology. However, such technologies rely on a number of key technical steps that are important, including in particular the critical bioinformatics analysis step. This chapter will therefore provide an overview of analysis parameters that are determinant for accurate WGS-based epidemiological surveillance of M. tuberculosis, linked to its restricted genetic diversity and the particular richness of its genome in repetitive regions.


Why DSM-III, IV, and 5 are Unscientific

If science is defined as some kind of systematic study of observed experience applied to hypotheses or theories, and then confirmation or refutation of those hypotheses or theories, followed by new hypotheses or theories that are further tested and refined by new observations – if this is the core of any scientific inquiry, I think that no objective observer can attribute the history of DSM-III, IV, and 5 to anything that approximates this process.

A Spirited Exchange about the Biology of Mental Disorders and DSM-5

The spirited exchange between Drs Ronald Pies and Nassir Ghaemi is, I contend, good for the field. Rather than avoid the sensitive or uncertain issues, both psychiatrists turn to face them with their own thought provoking styles and piercing insight. Would that we had more such collegial exchanges in psychiatry. Drs Pies and Ghaemi model for us how to abandon our defensiveness in an objective, respectful and passionate discourse.

As nobel laureate Erick Kandel points out, our field is highly complex, quite young and "our understanding of the biology of mental disorders has been slow in coming." But it is, in fact, slowly progressing. The question of how long it will take to gain a more precise understanding of the underpinnings of mental illness has no definite answer. Or as Dr Theodore Pearlman has stated - "is any psychiatrist's guess."

And so in this spirit of continued scholarly dialogue, I offer a well-reasoned, trenchant response to Dr Ghaemi by Dr Pearlman, which can be found at the end of Dr Ghaemi’s esssay.

Dr Ron Pies makes many insightful comments in the accompanying analysis. My view about why DSM revisions have been unscientific is based on concepts of science that are in agreement with much of what he describes. If science is defined as some kind of systematic study of observed experience applied to hypotheses or theories, and then confirmation or refutation of those hypotheses or theories, followed by new hypotheses or theories that are further tested and refined by new observations – if this is the core of any scientific inquiry, I think that no objective observer can attribute the history of DSM-III, IV, and 5 to anything that approximates this process.

Let’s review this history, so well documented now by historian Hannah Decker with archival, often unpublished evidence for DSM-III. 1 In the 1970s, scientific studies that meet the above definitions were collected mainly by researchers centered at the Washington University of St. Louis, and about 2 dozen diagnoses were found to be definable based on such empirical evidence. These were published a few times, lastly in 1978, as the Research Diagnostic Criteria. Within 2 years, Robert Spitzer had taken those scientifically-based diagnoses as the basis for DSM-III, but, through an immense amount of political wheeling-and-dealing (documented in painful detail by Decker), he produces 292 diagnoses. Obviously, in 2 years, a huge amount of scientific research did not suddenly identify 270 new diagnoses. Fourteen years later, with DSM-IV, 365 diagnoses were produced, but the original 270 were little changed. Now, about 20 years later, we still have almost 400 diagnoses, with little change in the original 292 from the Groundhog Year of 1980.

How were these other 200 to 300 diagnoses developed? Was it through a scientific process? As so well documented by Decker and historian Edward Shorter 2 and others who observed the process, like Michael Alan Taylor, 3 these other diagnoses were based almost entirely on the opinions and beliefs of leaders and interest groups in the psychiatric profession. Why do we have about 10 personality “disorders”? Because psychoanalysts believe in those ideas. Were those ideas tested with observational studies, and then revised based on confirmations and refutations of their content? Not before 1980, and hardly since. As an example, Taylor describes a DSM-IV conference on personality where a huge amount of scientific research was presented on personality traits, and then the DSM-IV leaders stated clearly that they would ignore that scientific evidence and would hardly change the DSM-III personality disorder definitions at all. 3 Twenty years later, after literally thousands more studies with some of the best possible scientific evidence possible in experimental psychology, the DSM-5 task force had no choice but to admit the need to add personality dimensions to the nosology. It got all the way to the APA Board of Trustees, and within weeks of publication, was simply rejected tout court.

The original DSM-III personality disorders were almost completely based on psychoanalytic opinion, with hardly any scientific validity literature to support them, as documented well by Hannah in her archival research. In the intervening 30 years, a number of scientific validity studies (using the classic nosology validators of phenomnelogy, course, genetics, and biological markers) have invalidated most DSM-IV personality disorders in other words, they have been falsified scientifically. In fact, this was the scientific conclusion of the personality disorder research summary provided for DSM-5 by the world’s most prominent personality researchers. 4 And yet DSM personality disorders have remained little changed in DSM-5 by fiat. This is another proof of being unscientific: the DSM nosology refuses to accept the falsification of its cherished beliefs.

This is the problem. It’s not complicated, and philosophically difficult. If you have opinion, and nothing else, it’s not science. If you refuse to change your opinions, it’s not science. Most of DSM has been based on opinion, and our profession has refused to change most of that opinion for 2 generations. How can anyone imagine that any profession would ever experience progress, much less scientific progress, if it refuses to change its opinions, themselves based on nothing but prior opinion?

We are much more ignorant than Hippocrates over 2 millennia ago. He knew that opinion breeds ignorance, while science is the father of knowledge. We mistake our opinions for science.

Dr Pies’ attempt to distinguish the terms “scientific” and “validity” is mistaken when applied to DSM, I think, partly because he uses the word “valid” in both English and scientific usage, which is not the same. “Validity” when applied to nosology means that a diagnosis is true it exists it is not wrong. Cancer is valid drapetomania is not. This is different from the English usage, when Dr Pies says [in his footnote] that the steady-state theory of the universe was invalidated by the Big-Bang theory. In the latter example, physicists were testing hypotheses by evidence, and changing their theories based on those experimental results. That’s science.

In the DSM process, psychiatric leaders enforce their opinions, and then they refuse to change them at all based on any experimental research. That’s not science. There are some cases, much less common, where DSM changes have been based on scientific evidence. So my claim here is not absolute, but it does reflect the predominant approach in DSM changes for the 4th revision almost entirely, and for the 3rd and 5th revisions mostly.)

Worse, the leader of DSM-IV is explicit that science is low in priority and should not be valued as the main method of revising diagnosis. 5 Instead, he says, we should base revisions mainly on “pragmatism,” meaning what DSM leaders think is good for everyone else. (A direct quote: It seems clear to me that pragmatic concerns for patient welfare always trump ‘science,’ especially since the ‘science underpinning psychiatric diagnosis is so thin and subject to alternative interpretations.”) 6

As usual, the disciples are far inferior to the master. Freud knew better when he wrote in Future of an Illusion: “No, our science is no illusion. But an illusion it would be to suppose that what science cannot give us we can get elsewhere.” 7

Nosological validity means applying scientific methods of hypothesis and experiment, and – most importantly – changing theories and hypotheses based on observations and experiments. This is not how the original 292 DSM-III diagnoses came about, and it is certainly not how they’ve been handled for the last 3 decades.

That’s why science and nosological validity (based on the 5 validators described by Dr Pies-see footnote) are synonymous in the field of psychiatric diagnosis. There’s no way to be scientific unless you use examine the evidence, which comes from those 5 areas. That’s nosological validity that’s science.

The issue is not whether scientific ideas are later “invalidated” here Dr Pies is using the word in its English meaning, not in its technical meaning in the science of nosology. Validity in nosology means studies that use the 5 validators (or pathology) that is different from the use of the term in the general English meaning that something is tested and confirmed based on experiment. The KIND of experiment varies from science to science: in histology, validity is based on microscopes in astrophysics, telescopes in psychiatric diagnosis, the 5 validators. The use of the word “invalidated” is English, and different from the term “validity” in nosology.

If you divide the 2 dozen somewhat validated psychiatric diagnoses, by the 400 or so claimed by DSM-5, we can precisely state that DSM-5 is about 97% unscientific. We need to change the attitude of 2 generations in our profession: paying lip-service to science, and then ignoring it.

References
1. Decker HS. The Making of DSM-III®: A Diagnostic Manual's Conquest of American Psychiatry. New York: Oxford University Press 2013.
2. Shorter E. Before Prozac: The Troubled History of Mood Disorders in Psychiatry. New York: Oxford University Press 2009.
3. Taylor MA. Hippocrates Cried: The Decline of American Psychiatry. New York: Oxford University Press 2013.
4. Widiger TA, Simonsen E, Krueger R, et al. Personality disorder research agenda for the DSM-V. J Pers Disord. 200519:315-338.
5. Frances A. DSM in Philosophyland: Curioser and Curioser. 2010 http://alien.dowling.edu/

cperring/aapp/bulletin.htm. Accessed November 8, 2010.
6. Frances A. DSM-5 and practical consequences. Psychology Today. December 23, 2010. http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/dsm5-in-distress/201012/dsm-5-and-practical-consequences. Accessed November 9, 2013.
7. Freud S. Future of an Illusion. Vol 22. London: Hogarth Press 1927.

In Defense of DSM

As an elder psychiatrist practicing before and after DSM-III became the standard diagnostic handbook for psychiatrists in the 1980s, I take issue with Dr Ghaemi’s position that DSM lacks scientific credibility. Dr Ghaemi wants psychiatry to confine its knowledge to diagnosing and treating only some dozen of the 265 DSM listed disorders-the conditions which he believes are the only true diagnosable psychiatric diseases. The rest Dr Ghaemi asserts, are essentially psychogenic entities, formulated through self-deception and agreed upon falsehoods by members of the DSM task forces in order to seemingly promote reliability but lacking true validity.

I believe that far from deviating from scientific truth, the task forces of DSM were spurred towards seeking a truthful classification of psychiatric illnesses for sound research and treatment purposes. Various criteria influenced this authenticity. Firstly, the DSM represented an atheoretical classification of mental disorders and avoided non-creditable speculation as to causation of psychiatric illness. Nowhere in the manual does the term disease associated with a functional psychiatric disorder appear which would erroneously imply proven structural brain pathology. Furthermore, in accordance with the concept of true illness, each diagnosis required a level of malfunction causing clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational or other important areas of functioning.

Before the advent of DSM-III, clinical psychiatry was bogged down by unproductive emphasis and debate on what appeared biological and genetic, versus psychological reactions to adverse environmental or personality factors. Hence as Dr Ghaemi has inferred, Sir Martin Roth, past doyen of British psychiatry and knighted by Queen Elizabeth for his services to British psychiatry, asserted that endogenous depression [phased in DSM-III into the nomenclature of Major depression] was exclusively a biological disease. Reactive depression termed neurotic depression by Roth was considered exclusively psychogenic in origin and to be managed with psychotherapy alone. 2

The problem with the Roth concept that endogenous depression is a structural brain disease is that the argument fails to mandate any proof of brain pathology. Instead there is speculation about the existence of innate brain molecular dysfunction which science thus far has failed to elucidate. Despite the unquestionable efficacy of antidepressants and ECT with endogenous depression, its pathology remains largely unknown. Symptom relief with SSRI and SNRI drugs or ECT does not directly imply an innate deficiency of brain amines, much as aspirin relieving fever in cases of strep throat does not imply deficiency of innate anti-fever substances in the body. How long psychiatry will take to discover the structural brain pathology of severe depressive illness, like bacteriology concerning the etiology of strep throat discovered centuries gone by, is any psychiatrist’s guess. In the meantime, while we wait for discovery of brain molecular pathology underlying endogenous depression, the DSM classification of depressive disorders on a continuum of diminishing severity namely from major to dysthymia, and both treatable with integrated biological and psychological treatment, remains psychiatry’s closest alignment to creditable scientific methodology and towards the ongoing search for the whole truth.


Oligodendrocyte Morphology

Composition of the Myelin Sheath

Compacted myelin comprises multiple fused phospholipid bilayers, and it is these lipids that provide the insulating properties of the sheath. Galactocerebroside (GalC) is a specific oligodendroglial lipid and is a useful immunohistochemical tool for studying oligodendrocytes. The other main constituent of myelin are proteins (30% of its dry weight), the major ones being myelin basic protein (MBP) and proteolipid protein (PLP), which are specific to myelin and are used immunohistochemically to identify and study myelinating oligodendrocytes. The main functions of MBP and PLP are in the fusion of the cytoplasmic and extracellular interfaces of the myelin lamellae, respectively. In addition, there are a number of proteins that in the CNS are specific to oligodendrocytes and which are important in myelin formation, including 2′,3′-cyclic nucleotide-3′-phosphodiesterase (CNP), myelin/oligodendrocyte specific protein (MOSP), myelin-associated/oligodendrocyte basic protein (MOBP), transferrin, carbonic anhydrase, and members of the tetraspan-protein family. Still other myelin-specific proteins are important in cell–cell interactions, for example, myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG), myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG), and oligodendrocyte-myelin glycoprotein (OMgp). Myelin is one of the most complex structures in the body and this is underscored by the large number of specialized proteins required for its formation and maintenance.


Does FNA biopsy always work? Does FNA needle biopsy of the thyroid always tell cancer of the thyroid?

  • The FNA needle biopsy is only as good as the guy holding the needle. Experience counts!
  • The diagnosis of thyroid cancer by FNA biopsy are frequently misinterpreted by unskilled or inexperienced Cytologists. The guy looking into the microscope needs to be experience too because they can get it wrong!
  • Bleeding at the FNA biopsy site is very rare except in people with bleeding disorders. Even when this occurs, the bleeding is almost always very self limited. Be sure to tell your doctor if you have problems with bleeding or are taking medicines that could affect bleeding, such as aspirin or blood thinners.
  • Sometimes an FNA biopsy will need to be repeated because the samples didn’t contain enough cells. This is called an "inadequate specimen", meaning the needle didn't suck up enough cells for the cytologist to look at under the microscope.
  • Most FNA thyroid biopsies will show that the thyroid nodule is benign, because, most thyroid nodules are benign (non-cancerous).
  • Rarely, the FNA thyroid biopsy may come back as benign even though a diagnosis of a thyroid cancer is actually present. In other words, it is possible (but quite rare) for the nodule to be cancerous but the result of the cytology report is that no cancer is present (benign).
  • Sometimes the cytology (microscope) results of the FNA biopsy comes back as “suspicious” for a diagnosis of papillary thyroid cancer. When this happens, the decisions made should be just like the diagnosis of papillary thyroid canceris made. In other words, if the FNA results say "suspicious for cancer" then we treat it like it is cancer. Suspicious for cancer is treated the same as if it was diagnosed as cancer.

Indeterminant Thyroid Nodule Biopsy: What happens if the biopsy has a result of "Undetermined Significance (ACUS)?

ACUS is an abbreviation for “atypical cells of undetermined significance”. This occurs when the thyroid FNA findings don’t show for sure if the nodule is either benign or malignant. The pathologist looks at the cells and just can't be sure if it is cancer, or non-cancer (beingn). If this happens, an option that your doctor has is to gentic testing done on the cells of the biopsy to see if there are genetic abnormalities seen. There are several commercially available tests that doctors can send the samples to determine the risk of the cells being cancerous--they look for several specific abnormal pieces of DNA that are frequently associated with thyroid cancer. Before you consider one of these genetic tests, you should ask yourself “what information do I seek?” and “How will this information change my approach to my thyroid mass?” The point being, many thyroid nodule biopsies do not need this expensive genetic testing , and if the answer isn't going to change what you are going to do, then don't spend the extra money (and time) getting genetic testing. For example, if the thyroid nodule has other characteristics or symptoms and the plan is to have surgery to remove the nodule, then don't bother with the genetic testing. It won't change what you are planning on doing--you are already planning surgery.

Sometimes the genetic testing will indicate surgery is necessary. For example, if you have a small thyroid nodule that is less than 1.5 cm and the FNA biopsy result is "atypical cell of undetermined significance" (ACUS) and the plan was to just monitor the nodule with ultrasound every year, then getting genetic testing could change this plan and lead you to a surgery if the nodule contains a specific abnormal gene that is associated with thyroid cancer. In this case, the genetic testing changed the plan from "monitoring" to surgery.

From an opposite standpoint, if you are above 5o years of age and have a 4cm thyroid nodule that has abnormal vascularity and the FNA biopsy of the nodule is "atypical cells of undetermined significance" (ACUS) then genetic testing may not be necessary because surgery would already be recommended for multiple reasons including ultrasound appearance, the large size of the nodule, and your age. Genetic testing of this thyroid nodule would only be beneficial in this circumstance if the surgeon and patient would propose a total thyroidectomy based upon this additional information (instead of just a thyroid lobectomy).

Genetic Testing of Thyroid Nodules: Veracyte / Afirma, Asuragen, and Thyroseq

There are three commercially available genetic testing companies for thyroid nodules: Veracyte (Afirma), Asuragen, and Thyroseq. They are similar, but each has some unique advantages. Typically your doctor will send your FNA biopsy specimin to just one of these three. Here are some specifics about the the genetic thyroid tests:

  • The Veracyte / Afirma test has the best ability to tell whether the FNA cytology is benign. This is called a “rule out” test. It is really good at seeing if a thyroid nodule is benign. If this test tells you the needle biopsy is benign, then the possibility of it actually being a cancer is less than 4%.
  • Both Asuragen and Thyroseq are “rule in” tests. This means that they look for genetic abnormalities known to be associated with a diagnosis of thyroid cancers. Finding these particular genetic changes makes a diagnosis of thyroid cancer much more likely, and in some circumstances may also play a role in determining the best surgery for the cancer.

If your FNA biopsy doesn't give you a good, reliable answer, (if it cannot tell the difference between a benign thyroid nodule and a thyroid cancer), you might need to take more invasive steps and even a biopsy during surgery to get a better sampling of cells from the thyroid nodule so the pathologist has more cells to examine under the microscope. If the doctor has reason to think the nodule is suspicious or worrisome for a thyroid cancer based upon the nodule size, symptoms, or ultrasound appearance, the preferred biopsy is to not stick needles in it again, but instead to REMOVE that entire half of the thyroid (called a thyroid lobectomy). The entire thyroid nodule will come out with the half of the thyroid (the thyroid "lobe") that it is growing in. A thyroid lobectomy can also be the main treatment for many patients with a diagnosis of thyroid nodules as well as many thyroid cancers. Said differently, sometimes removing half of the thyroid (thyroid lobectomy) will be all the surgery a patient needs and the cancer can be cured during this one operation. We have several videos discussing the pros and cons of removing half of the thyroid for thyroid cancer. There are many patients that can be cured of thyroid cancer just by removing half of the thyroid.